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Full text of "The Gladwin manuscripts; with an introduction and a sketch of the conspiracy of Pontiac"

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



0000^55155 



THE 

GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND A 
SKETCH OP THE CONSPIRACY OF 
PONTIAC, BY CHARLES MOORE 



LANSING, MICH. 
ROBERT SMITH PRINTING 

1897 



THE 

GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND A 
SKETCH OF THE CONSPIRACY OF 
PONTIAC, BY CHARLES MOORE 



1898 



LANSING, MM ii 
ROBERT SMITH PRINTING CO 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 



TOGETHER WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND AN HISTORK 
1 iF I'll K i I iXSPIRAt - > OKP »NT1AC. 






| Reprinti 



l\Ti;< IDUl TK IN. 

Pontine Las a well defined place in the history of this country. The 
temporary success of his greal conspiracy against the English and his 
tragic death by the hand of an assassin; and especially the fad thai he 
embodied in his own person the most formidable protest against the 
encroachments of the whites on the hunting grounds of the red men, have 
combined to make him the heroic figure in northwestern history during 
the years between the surrender of Canada to the English and the War 
of the Revolution. .Moreover, the genius of Parkman has made it cer- 
tain that the name of Pontiac will never cease to be remembered among 
English speaking people on this continent. 

What changes might have taken place in the development of the north- 
west had Pontiac's conspiracy been successful, can only be surmised. 
That he was foiled in his great purpose and after many minor successes 
was compelled in the end to acknowledge defeat was due to the unex- 
ampled intrepidity, carefulness aud soldierly training of one man. The 
sagacity of Henry Gladwin and his success in withstanding the long 
siege of Detroit, mark him as one of the very few great Indian fighters 
in our history. And yet when one inquires as to Gladwin's history 
before or after the siege of Detroit, one tinds even on the pages of Park 
man nothing but a misspelled name. 

Four years ago, the writer began the task of getting together what 
facts were known as to Gladwin's career. On appealing to Mr. Park- 
man in person, the result was a charming morning among the roses at his 
home on the banks of Jamaica Pond; but no information. Nor did a pro- 






LADWIN MAMS< RIPTS. 



'arkman manuscripts in the Massachusetts 

add much to the meagre stock ol knowledge 

, Haldimand and Bouquel collections ol letters 

they appear in pari in the published volumes 

s iety and as thej exist entire 

U lawa;bul here again the results were simply 

hrough the tiles of the Gentleman'sMagazine from 

, . .,. - coming to America to the end of the cen 

death (1791), and, what was more important, 

reral of his daughters. II so happens 

which Mary, Gladwin's third daughter, married, 

■ mtj Families, and after repeated importuni- 

ed fr ili" present representative of that family, 

llollinghourne, near Maidstone, who referred the 
liladwyu Jebh, of Firbeck Hall, Rotherham, Fork- 
decided interest in the matter, and who kindly sent the 
- -''i below. 
3l , adants of Gen. Gladwin the following 
il to his life were brought to light : 



HENRY GLADWIN. 

dwin family traces its descent from Thomas Gladwin, who 

■ i:m\ Derby, and who was born about 1005. He 

• Gladwin, Esq., justice of the peace, of Tupton 

d in LG30, and was high sheriff of Derby county in 

rms. His eldesl son was Lemuel, from 

i..ii,i, ,it' Tupton Hall. Another son. John, had a 

.. who married the Righl Honorable, the Mar! of New- 

';. t daughter, Jane, who married (Jen. William Wyn 

two daughters, Mary and Dorothy. The second 

Henry Gladwin, with whom we have to do. 1 

Ui tin Gladwin was born in 1730. The lirst record of him is found in 

its for 17.V.. in which he appears as a lieutenant of 

il from 2d lieutenant, Irish half-pay). From the 

ill I7ijii we ham that Gladwin was a subaltern in 

■ ui at the time of the Braddock defeal at Little 

nd thai In- was among those who showed bravery on that oc- 

that he was among the eight wounded sub- 

Iwin Oladwyn, of Hiachleywood, 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 607 

alterns of his regiment, five of his fellow lieutenants having been killed. 
His name is spelled "Glandwin" in the report, bul is correctly spelled in 
Genera] Braddock's orderly book No. 2, as reprinted in Lowdermilk's His 
ton- of Cumberland. It was during this campaign thai Gladwin came 
under the notice of Lieutenanl Colonel Gage, with whom he sustained 
most friendly relations in after years. 2 Ii would be very interesting to 
know if at this time a personal acquaintance was formed between Lieu 
tenant Gladwin and George Washington, bul continued search through 
every book and documenl likely to shed lighl on this matter fails to give 
even the slightest information on the subject. 

In a letter from Sir Jeffrey Amherst to Lord Barrington, Secretary at 
War. dated Crown Point. August 10, 1759, we find this mention of 
( iladw in: 

"I now enclose to your Lordship as likewise a copy of a Com 

"mission to serve as Major during the < Campaign that I though! necessary 
"for the good of His Majesty's Service to granl to Captain Gladwin as 
"Eldest Captain of Gage's, as Major to that Regiment. * * 1 hope my 
"having appointed Majors to the Corps during the Campaign will meet 
"with His Majesty's gracious approbation." 

On May 28, 1760, Gen. Amhersl ordered Gladwin from New York by 
way of Fort Pitt, to relieve Niagara. On his way he was to leave 150 
men at Presq' Isle where he was to throw up an intrenchment. 4 On his 
way across Lake Erie, Gladwin made a char! of the const. 

On September 9, Vaudreuil announced to the Beaujou al Michilimack- 
inac, the capitulation of Montreal; and on October 18, Monckton wrote 
to Bouquet that Amherst had ordered Major Robert Rogers to Michili 
mackinac to take possession of the upper posts. With Rogers went 
Captain Campbell with a detachment to garrison Detroit. On the same 
day Amherst wrote from Crown Point to the Duke of Rich] d:° 

"I really am sorry that Your Grace's Protection to Captain Gladwin 
"with the mention you were pleased to make of his promotion, has not 
"been attended with better success. I would renew my application to 
"Lord Barrington, but I can expeci no good effecl from it. since your 
"Grace's mentioning Captain Gladwin has ma taken place; this is the 
-second Campaign I have given him a Commission to serve as Major, and 
"if I may lie allowed to forgel for a momenl that he is recommended by 
"Your Grace, it is a justice I owe to his Services, to say, the manner in 
"which he has at all times commanded Gage's (the 80th Foot I Corps does 

-' See letter, Gladwin to (face, in Gladwin MSs 

Slam under deep obligations to Col. William Ludlow, Military \".-l" ' 
States, London, England" who, at the request of Senator Jai 

every mention of Gen. Gladwin on file in the British War Office. 1 In re.o.e-t ma.lele 
compliedwith through th» court.-* .if the M.irquisof Land.s.low..... see, et.-n-.v ..I state fc 
Ralph Thompson and lir Arthur Haliburton. Copies of entire co 

< Monckton to Bou.juet. July 6, 1760 B tuquel 

' l!riti-h War Office MSS. 



I.WIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

.11 have been bo g I to speak for him, I hope 

Regiment, for ] do no1 know any 

'"'- "' ' K , ,,■ 

Michigan Pioneer and Histon al 

. ption of Major Rogers at 

A , Detroil life. On July 30, 1761, 

,,.,,,„., thai Sir William Johnson and Major 
o D( troit, wiili 300 lighl infantry; 

h had leached Presq' tsle. Gen. Amhersi 
\ War, in a letter dated Albany, 

letachmenl of three hundred men to the Upper Lakes 

■ ,,.. Gladwin of Gage's, and T have judged it 

- dee to appoinl Captain Gladwin to ad 

lition, for which I have given him a Commis- 

i Hi- Majesty will approve of." 

on above referred to, dated 22nd June, 17(11. 

\mherst, Esqre., Major General and Com- 
II - Majesty's Forces in North America, &c, &c., 

ptain in His Majesty's 80th Regiment 

■ thought it requisite for the better carrying on of His 

should be appointed to His Majesty's 

! '-'hi A mud Foot, 1 do by virtue of I ho Power and 

■ i granted l>.\ His Majesty, hereby constitute 

pjioinl v.. a io bi' Major to the said Regiment, during this Campaign 

i which n>" ; •"''' '" return to the rank of Captain unless pro- 

t hcrwise; you arc therefore, &i .. &( 

ngust 17) to Bouquel the arrival at 

illiam Johnson and Major Gladwin, and enlarges on the 

lii\ that marked the visit. Sir William was convinced 

against the English was universal, a fact that 

ippears from the correspondence thai a Mr. 

drawing seven feet of water and 

ommanded 1>\ I. ■ Robertson : and a 

rhes played such an im- 

d« in had no pai i. An attach of 
ivas nol until i Ictober 
iiftirieiitlv to return.' 



■ 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 609 

After leaving Detroit. Gladwin sailed for England, and on .March 30, 
1762, he married Frances, the daughter of the Rev. John Beridge. The 
photograph taken from Mrs. Gladwin's portrail shews thai in middle life 
she was a handsome woman. Indeed at first glance the portrail would 
be taken for a picture of Martha Washington. That at the age of 18 she 
must have been a beautiful bride is quite evident: and one ran readily 
believe that it was with no little reluctance on both sides thai soon after 
the marriage the bridegroom again set his face towards the American 
wilderness. Perhaps it was by way of a wedding presenl that Gladwin 
was offered a majority in Bouquet's regimenl of Royal Americans; but he 
declined the proffer, because he preferred to take bis chances in the 
regular British army. The correspondence on the subjecl is to be found 

m " letter from Amherst 8 dated -T 15, 1762, stating that he had 

granted a commission to Major Gladwin of Wilmott's (80th Fool I in suc- 
ceed Major Walters in the Royal American Regiment; but in a subse- 
quent letter (July 2o. 1762) the General states that Major Gladwin 
to remain in the 80th Regiment. Gladwin explains his decision in a 
letter to Bouquet, dated July 29. On August 1. we get trace of Gladwin 
at Niagara; and on the 23d he arrived at Detroil as commandant. 9 

In Bouquet's correspondence with Gen. Amherst during 1763 there are 
occasional references to Gladwin: but the latter seems to have been little 
given to the use of his pen. From these scattered references one learns 
that Amherst had unbounded confidence in the young major; and that 
while steps were taken to give him relief, yet the gravity of his situation 
during the long seige seems not to have been appreciated at headquarters. 
The letter from Gladwin to Amherst, given in the Gladwin MSS.. dated 
November 1. 17<;.*:. states the conclusion of the whole Pontiac matter. The 
promotions given to Gladwin later show that his services were appreci- 
ated by Amherst, who bad the reputation for preferring officers id' ability 
to officers who had family connections; and finally the home authorities 
were brought to grant recognition corresponding with Gladwin's deserts. 
While the' seige of Pontiac was in progress, Sir Jeffrey Amherst on 
turning over bis command to General Gage, mi November 17. 17<;.".. said in 
bis instructions: "It was my intention that tin- 42d Regimenl should 
have garrisoned the Detroit and Posts above, l"ii as it lias been found 
impracticable for that Regimenl to advance from Presq' isle this season, 
1 have empowered Major Gladwin to keep up the 80th Regiment on such 
an event.'' 

It is not the intention here to tell the well-known story of Pontiac's 
seige of Detroit; but merely to give Ike hitherto unknown facts as to 
Gladwin's life. In a volume of Parkman's MSS., marked "Pontiac Mis 
cellanies. 17ti4." is a letter from Gage t<> Bradstreet, dated at New York, 

8British War Office MSS. 
9 Bouquet Papers. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRE 

1764, in which Gen. Gage states thai Gladwin had delivered 
- and 29; and on < >ctober L2th Gage (who 
i .1 Anthers! i wrote to the Secretary of War: 1 " 
Had win having come here from Detroit, and his private affairs 
quiring his presence in England, I have given him leave to go 
Kvgimeut to which he belongs is reduced. 11 
his Gentleman had performed will alone be sufficienl to 
our Protection. 1 won hi only presume to hope that 
"his in. i-i t will procure him the same rank that every other Officer has 
"hitherto obtained who lias served in the Station of Deputy Adjutant 
ial." 

■ Gladwin - dated Stubbing, England, Febru- 

I, 1771. printed in the Gladwin MSS., we find that he had settled 

down in the life "f a country gentleman, after having been presented at 

Court. He never saw further military service, and died on June 22, 

17*M. 

The obil nan notice ia the Gentleman's Magazine for July, L791, is as 
folio 

"After a long illness at his seat al Stubbing, near Chesterfield, county 

"Derby, Major-general Gladwin, an officer of great merit. He had served 

■•a long time in America, where he was wounded at the action with the 

li and Indians .-it the hark settlements on the hanks of the river 

in July, 1755, when Gen. Braddock, the English commander, un- 

"happily lost his life." 

Gladwin was buried in the Wingerworth Church, and the inscription 
o i his monument is as follows: 

"Here lieth the remains of General H. Gladwin. He departed this life 

••on the 22nd day of June, I7'.U. in the 62d year of his age. He was dis- 

lished by all those private and social duties which constitute to the 

"man and the < 'hristian. Early trained to arms and martial deeds he 

ill for fame amidst the toils of hostile war, with that ardour which 

avesoldier. On the plains of North America 

eapeil (lie laurels al the battles of Niagara and Ticonderoga, in 

•■which he u;is wouinhd. II was conspicuous and his niemor- 

"abh Detroit against the attack of the Indians will 

o rded in the annals of a grateful country. 

"Also Mary and Henry, sen and daughter of the aforesaid General II. 

"Gladwin and his wife, who died in infancy; Martha Gladwin, their 

LS17, aged 32. 

sister of the late John Beridge, of Derby, M. D., and 

n of the above General Gladwin, died October 16, LS17, aged 7t 



ber. 1761. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 611 

It is probable that the monument to Gladwin was erected a consider- 
able time after his death, for the date given thereon, 1794, is three vears 
later than his death actually occurred, as is proved h\ the record in the 
i rentleman's Magazine quoted above. 

Gladwin's rid. -si son, Charles Dakeyne of Belmonl and Stubbing was 
born in 1775 and died in L844, leaving one daughter. Gladwin's daugh- 
ter, Frances, married June 9, 1841, Francis Goodwin, Esquire, of Maple- 
ton. He bequeathed all his estates in ids nephew, the Rev. Henry John- 
son Goodwin, of Hinchleywood, county Derby, from whom they des 
cended i«i Captain Richard Henry Goodwin, hue captain id' the 6th Foot, 
who assumed the additional name and arms of Gladwin a year after he 
came into the property. 

I laptain Gladwin, under the date of January ;.', 1894, writes me that he 
has no record of Gen. Gladwin's early life, and thai unfortunately when 
he came into the estate all papers and records had hern destroyed. He, 
however, sent photographs of General and Mrs. Gladwin, and a copy 
of the monument inscription as given above. 

Gen. Gladwin's second daughter, Dorothy, married, January I. IT!*.'. 
Joshua Jebb, Esquire, whose descendant, the Rev. Henry Gladwyn Jebb, 
under tin- date of 1 >ecember 27, 1893, writes me: 

'•I had hoped to send you some information by this day's mail on the 
"subject of my great grand-father, General Gladwin. The Derbyshire 
"house and home of the Gladwins is Tupton Hall, in North Wingfield 
"Parish, near Chesterfield, which was built in 1611, and has been altered 
"scarcely at all since an addition built about 1670. The line of Gladwin 
"merged into an heiress nearly two hundred years ago, and her descend- 
ants, a family named Lord, lived there until recently, when th- last of 
"Iter line died and left the estate to strangers. I had then, however, the 
"opportunity of buying all the family pictures, one a group of ten, Thomas 

"Gladwin and his wife, down to a baby. I g ne hit of Gladwin plate, 

"dated like the picture 1672, a good deal of old furniture and some old 
"books. 

The MSS. given below were among the papers obtained by Mr. Jebb, 
who sent them to me on March 12. 1894, saying: 

"At last I have come upon letters relating io -Major Gladwin, which I 
"hope may prove interesting to you. I have not time just now to copy 
"them or even to read them through." 

Mary, the third daughter of Gen. Gladwin, married November 29, 1800, 
Baldwin Duppa, Duppa Esquire, of Hollingburn, near Maidstone, Kent, 
the present representative of which family is L'. do Uphaugh, Esq., of 

Hollingburn, who in my case proved the key to il tier descendants of 

Gladwin, since it was through his kind offices that I was put in communi- 
cation with them. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 



UENin GLADWIN AND THE SIEGE OF PONTIAC. 1 

of Canada by the English broughl about several read- 
within the territory now included in the State of Michigan, 
ml} settlements were at Detroit, at Mackinac (Michilimackinac), at 
Sawh - and St. Joseph; and of these only the ones a1 Detroil 

and Mackinac were of importance. The scat of government was trans- 
o Ww York, whence General Jeffery Amherst exer- 
miltarj control over the posts. Under him Colonel Bouquet at 
Pittsburg) ranked the commandanl at Detroit; but the latter 
held ntrol over the upper lake posts and reported directly 

Vmheret. Indian affairs were in charge of Sir William John- 
Bon, whose headquarters, at Johnson Hall in the presenl State of New 
. swarmed with Indian retainers and dependents, as well as with his 
own balf-breed children. Under Sir William was his deputy. George 
hi. w ho was constantly engaged in going from tribe to tribe in his 
efforts to keep the peai 

Along the Atlantic coast an American population of English and 
Dutch descent peopled the country. Nominally colonists, these people 
! practically a group of independent states, only awaiting the com- 
ing ol • adj foreshadowed to coalesce into a new nation. From 
this sturdy civilization the lake region was completely cut off by the 
A lie- arrier not to be crossed at all until the close of the Revo- 
lution; and for Michigan not until long after that date. As under the 
French, so under the English, the lake region continued to be held by 
lined in an l ntry for the protection of the fur- 
e difficulties of the situation arose from the fact that the 
Indians disputed the righl of the French to dispose of the country to the 
English; while on their part, the English, having no longer to fear the 
h power, took less and less pains to conciliate the Indians. 
Captain Donald Campbell, as he settled down for a long winter at 
Detro i ill phased with his situation. 2 The fort was 

ind in g I repair, with two bastions towards the river and a large, 

Btrong bastion towards the Isle au Cochon (Belle Isle); two six pounders 

and three mortars made up the battery. Within the high palisades 

y or eighty houses lined the narrow streets. The fertile 



ety, at the animal meeting. 18%; and now 
ol Harper A Brothers. Copyrighted. 

ad of th.> liritioli xarrison at Detroit by Major Robert 
i-.*t »u aiirr.-i, ,,.j, by M. Deletre, the French 

oonn nifiant. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 613 

country along both banks of the river was cu1 into narrow farms front- 
ing on the water and extending back into the endless forest The 
Indians living in the vicinity of the Fori, as well as the settlers, looked 
to the commandant for both justice 3 and supplies. The soldiers were 
contented, a fact which the captain ascribed to the absence of rum; and 
the Indians were seemingly friendly, although the supplies issued to 
them were meagre in extreme. The serial life al Detroil especially 
pleased the gray-haired bachelor commandant. The women surpassed 
his expectations; and the men. although very independent. wer< 
ready for pleasure. The Sunday card parlies at The commandant's quar- 
ters, attended by both sexes, gave to life at Detroit a zesl uo1 known at 
Fort Pitt; and at a ball, given in honor of the King's birthday, the array 
of ladies was so flue as to call forth Captain Campbell's hearty com- 
mendations, in one of his numerous gossipy letters to Colonel Bouquet. 
Moreover, both the French and the Indians were as fond of the pleasure- 
loving captain as their fickle natures would allow. 

During the summer, however, emissaries from the Six Nations came to 
Detroit with large belts, for the purpose of stirring up a general warfare 
against the English. Matters became so serious that Sir Jeffrey Amherst 
thought best to send Sir William Johnson to make a treaty at Detroit, 
and to dispatch Major Gladwin with three hundred light infantry to 
strengthen the western posts. On their arrival in September, Sir Wil- 
liam stated his conviction that the conspiracy against the English was 
universal; but this opinion was not shared by General Amherst. The 
latter thought the Indians incapable of doing serious harm, but ordered. 
by way of precaution, that they be kept short of powder. 

The visit of Sir William Johnson was the greatest social event that 
the people of Detroit had ever known. Captain Campbell was in his ele- 
ment. On Sunday evening he gave a ball to which he invited about 
twenty of the French maidens of the settlement. The dame began at 
eight o'clock in the evening and lasted until five next morning. It was 
opened by Sir William and Mademoiselle Cuillerie, the daughter of the 
principal French trader; and her black eyes made such a lasting impres 
sion on the gallant Indian agent that the exchange of compliments 
between them appears in the correspondence for several years, the last 
mention being found in a letter from -lames Stirling, who. en behalf of 
his wife, returns hearty thanks for Sir William's civilities to her. four 
years previous. Before leaving Detroit, Sir William also gave a ball, 
and on this occasion the dancing continued for eleven hours. There was 
also a round of dinners and calls, at which wines and cordials were 
served without stint; presents were showered upon the Indians, and 

3 Gladwin MSS. Warrant issued by Sir Jeffery. Amherst to Major Henry Gladwin,' Oj^gMand 
zecation of the sentences in the case of two Panis (Pawnee) slaves for the n.arder of John Uapnam. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 
ii.il all the principal inhabitants dined with the diplo 

l„ a || these festivities Major Gladwin had no part. Lying in a little 

withi aringof the lively fiddle and the laughter of the dancers, 

i, \ racked his bones and made him long for his 

\i evening Sir William would visii him to talk over 

day and plan for the future; and ii was no1 until the 
, . T thai Gladwin was able to leave for Fori William 
i. Lis way to England. 
Inly, 17G2, the Indians learned with satisfaction thai England was 
r with Spain, and soon the reporl spread far and wide that the 
and Spanish were to retake Quebec and all Canada. Here at last 
. mice for which the savages had been waiting. With the help 
of the French they could drive oul the English, and once more receive 
solicitous attention from both nations. At this juncture .Major Glad- 
win again appeared al Detroit, this time with orders to establish posts 
on Lake Superior and to exercise general supervision over the north- 
ii establishments. Captain Campbell, although now somewhat 
wearied by the sameness of garrison pleasures, remained as second in 
command; and the favor in which he was held by both the French and 
ndians was a derided help to the adroit and businesslike Gladwin. 

umpan\ il ulcers had sir Roberl Davers, an Englishman of edu- 

■ alien and adventurous disposition, who had been exploring the Lake 
Superior com 

As Spring i ame and I he February i haws and March rains loosened the 
ice bom is thai for three long months bad locked Detroil from the world, 
liladwin al evening must often have siood on the platform within the 
palisades lo look oul on the tumultuous river, where the great ice cakes 

Ste. < 'laire, tumbling over each other like marine monsb 

play, wen.- hurrying down to the warmer waters of Lake Erie. By da\ 

tails of administration kept him busy. The French merchants 

within the fori grumbled al the increased taxes imposed for the support 

arrison much larger than their own king had maintained; the out- 

lying po^is were continually sending for supplies; General Amherst was 

cautioning againsl gifts of ammunition and rum to the Indians; and the 

i, having bartered their furs for liquor at Niagara, had no means 

of obtaining the necessaries of life from the traders al Detroit. Some of 

' nch and Indians complained thai Gladwin called them dogs, and 

drove them from his house; and the subsequenl career of those persons 

wuo made ll|r charges shows thai the commandant was an excellent 

ol human nature. 



ESaBKste 



fho family has since become extinct. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. R15 

Confident of the power of England to bold all 1 ba1 she liad gained from 
Franco, Gladwin had no suspicions that the Indians would foolishly rush 
to their own destruction by an attack on The British posts. Living 
behind palisades, and surrounded by a cordon of discontented and intrigu- 
ing French, Gladwin could have no accurate knowledge of the mis- 
chief that for months had been plotted by the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, who 
had established himself, with his wives, on the narrow isle a la Peche 
(Peach Island), rising above the waters of Lake Ste. Claire and concealed 
from the view of the fort by the thickly wooded Isle au Cochon. There 
is no reason to believe that Pontiac had impressed himself upon Gladwin 
as being in any way distinguished above the other chiefs, and doubtless 
many of the reports— like those of Rogers— of the Ottawa's striking per- 
sonality are too highly colored. The fact remains, however, that now. 
at the age of fifty, Pontiac was in the full vigor of his power over the sur- 
rounding tribes, and that, during his connection with the whites, his 
keen intelligence had absorbed valuable military knowledge. According 
to his own account, he had saved the French at Detroit from massacre 
in 1746, when the great chief Mickinac (the Turtle) came with his north- 
ern bands "to carry off the head of the French commander and eat his 
heart and drink his blood." Doubtless, too, he had led the Ol lawns at 
Little Meadows in 17r>5, when < Had win for the first time heard the 
Indian warwhoop. At a great council (April, 1763), held on the hanks 
of the River Ecorses, below Detroit, Tontiac had related to the supersti- 
tious Indians a dream wherein the Great Spirit sent his message that 
they were to cast aside the weapons, the manufactures and the rum of 
the white men. and with help from above, drive the dogs in red from 
every post in their country. The superstitious Indians heard with awe 
the voice from on high, and left the council prepared to obey the sum- 
mons. 

Detroit being the chief point of attack. Pontiac took upon himself the 
plan for surprising and massacring the garrison. On May 1, forty Otta- 
was danced the calumet dance before Gladwin's house. This visit was 
for the purpose of spying out the land. Four days later, M. Gouin, a sub- 
stantial French settler, brought word that his wife, while visiting the 
Ottawa camp to buy venison, had seen the Indians tiling oil' the ends of 
their gun barrels, evidently preparing for some deed of treachery. On 
the evening of the 6th Gladwin received private information that the 
next day had been set for the destruction of his garrison. The exacl 
source of this private information is still a matter of doubt. Lieutenant 
McDougall, who doubtless knew the secret, gives no hint in his report. 
Mr. C. M. Burton makes the not impossible suggestion that Mademoi- 
selle Cuillerie, whose father and brother unquestionably knew of the con 
spiracy, put Major Gladwin on his guard, and that .lames Stirling, who 



Till; GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

husband, was well rewarded bj the British for 

ird which Stirling received, however, 

well have bit-n given because he became the leader of the French 

. n they a1 last determined to supporl Gladwin. Carver, who 

to bi described, and who pub- 

: three editions of his "Travels through North America" while 

in was still living, relates withoul contemporary contradiction, a 

ted with little hesitation and that Parkman clings 

..i the doubts thrown upon it by investigations he himself 

- ibsequenl to the first edition of his "Conspiracy of Pontine." 

ng of Ma.\ 7th, according to Carver, 6 an Indian girl who had 
mployed by Major Gladwin to make him a pair of moccasins out of 
curious elk skin, brougbl her work home. The Major was so pleased 
with i ins that, intending them as a present to a friend, he 

ordered her to take back the remainder of the skin to make a pair for 
him. Saving been paid and dismissed, the woman loitered at the door. 

Gladwin was quick ei 'jli to see that something was amiss. Being 

io tell her trouble, she said, after much hesitation, that as he had 

always behaved with much g Iness to her, she was unwilling to take 

away the remainder of the skin, because lie put so great a value upon it 
ami sin- should never be able to bring it hack. His curiosity being now 
-I. 1m- insisted thai she disclose Hie secret that seemed to be strug- 
gling in her bosom for utterance. At last, on receiving a promise that 
tin- intelligence she was aboul to give him should not turn to her preju- 
dice, ami that if it appeared to !»• beneficial she should be rewarded for 
it. she informed him thai at the council to be held witli tlie Indians the 
follow ing day, Pontiac ami his chiefs intended to murder him; and, after 
having massacred the garrison ami inhabitants, to plunder the town. 
Gladwin then dismissed her with injunctions to secrecy and a promise 
of reward. 

A story ;n once so romantic and so widely accepted deserves tender 
treatment; but in the Parkman manuscripts this same tale is found in 
the mouth of one of Roger's soldiers, w ho, as Cass proves, could not have 
known il„. facts. The truth probably has been related by the unknown 
author of the Pontiac Diary. This writer says thai an Ottawa Indian 
called Mahigan. who had entered but reluctantly into the conspi 
ud who fell disph-ased with the steps his people were taking, came 
on Friday night, withoul the knowledge of the other Indians, to the gate 
of the Fort and asked to be admitted to the presence of the commander, 



M icDonald given Way 6. Friday, ae the day of the diecloenre. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 617 

saying that he had something of importance to tell him. The gates hav- 
ing been opened, he was conducted to Captain Campbell, second in com- 
mand, who sent for Gladwin. They wished to call in the interpreter, 
Labutte. but the Indian objected, saying that he could make himself 
understood in French. He unfolded the conspiracy of the Indians, and 
told how they would fall on the English nexl day. Having obtained a 
pledge of secrecy and having refused presents lesl the Indians should 
discover his treachery and kill him. ho left the fort secretly. The writer 
adds that Gladwin made a promise not to disclose the source of his infor 
mation, and that he kepi it. 7 

The crisis had come in the life of the young commandant of his 
majesty's forces at Detroit. Although he could not then have known 
the extent of the widespread conspiracy which Pontiac had planned' yei 
he did know that his steadfastness and his knowledge of Indian warfare 
were about to be put to the test. Gladwin was a soldier by choice and 
by training, and the seven years he had spent in England's service on the 
frontiers had not been without its hard lessons. In 175.") he had landed 
on the banks of the Potomac as a lieutenant in the ill fated l'.raddock 
expedition. lie was one of that band of glittering officers whom the pro- 
vincial soldier, George Washington, had envied as they congregated in 
the old Braddock House at Alexandria, whose now bare but stately stair- 
case and broad halls seem still to be peopled by the ghosts of fair ladies 
and dashing soldier gallants of a century and a quarter ago. In the 
ambush of Little Meadows he had learned from the brave yet cautious 
young Virginian that the military science of the old world was out of 
place in battling with the denizens of the American forests; and in the 
campaigns against Ticonderoga and Niagara this new knowledge had 
stood him in good stead. Scarcely more than a year previous he had 
given a hostage to fortune by leading to the altar of the little Winger- 
wort church in Derbyshire a beautiful girl of nineteen, from whose side 
military duties in America too quickly recalled him. As the prospective 
head of an old and honorable county family, yet with little besides his 
profession of arms to give him support and reputation, Henry Gladwin, 
at the age of thirty-three, must have realized that the peril which now 
faced the King's supremacy was for him the door to success or to failure 
in life, according as he should succeed or fail to hold the post of 
Detroit against the savages whose hostility and crafty treachery now 
threatened it. And yet. perhaps the warning of danger to come might 
be without foundation, as so many other warnings had proved to be. 
Perhaps the prudent, if fickle, Indians were bent merely on extorting 

' The Pontiac Diary was written in French, probably by one of the priests of St. Anne's. " Ka * f " m "' 
in the roof of a Canadian house that wrs being torn down. Three translations exist, one in manuscript 
is among the Parkman MSS. in the Library of ihe Massachusetts Historical S. cietj .another is to be 
fonnd in Schoolcraft's second volume; and the other in Vol. 8, Michigan Pioneer tolec. ions. J lie ' origi- 
nal has been lost tbrongh the carelessness of persons connected with the old Michigan Historical 
Society; and the loss is a serious one. 
78 



618 THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

ate and a more liberal portion of rum. Perhaps the serene 

pathway of peace and nol of war; perhaps the stillness of the 

trackl( | destined to be broken by the warwhoop and the 

,!,..,,!, crv , if i, was to be war he would be found neither unprepared 

nor wanting in the determination thai marks the soldier. In either 

the morrow would tell the story. 

Vboul ten o'clock the nexl morning, as Carver relates. Pontiac and his 

chiefs arrived, and were conducted to the council chamber, where Glad- 

win and his principal officers awaited their coming. As the Indians 

passed on they could no1 help observing a greater number of troops than 

usual drawn up on the parade. No sooner had the Indians entered the 

council chamber and Beated themselves on the skins prepared for them, 

than Pontiac asked the commandant why his young men, meaning the 

Boldiers, were thus drawn up, and parading the streets. "To keep them 

p.-rfcct in their exercise." was the answer. 

Then Pontiac began to protest his friendship and good will towards 
Dglish; and when he came to deliver the belt of wampum, which, 
according to the warning, was to he the signal for his chiefs to fire, "the 
governor and all his attendants drew their swords half-way from their 
Kcabbards; and the soldiers at the same instant made a clattering with 
their arms before the doors, which had been purposely left open. Even 
Pontiac trembled, and instead of giving the belt iu the manner proposed, 
delivered it according to the usual way. His stolid chiefs, who had 
expected the signal, continued quiet, awaiting the result." 

I rladwin, in his turn, made a speech. Instead of thanking Pontiac for 
the professions of friendship just uttered, he accused him of being a 
traitor, lb- said t hat i In- English, who knew everything, were convinced 
of Pontiac's treachery and villainous designs. Then, reaching down to 
the Indian chief seated nearest him, he drew aside his blanket, discover- 
ing' the shortened tin-lock. This entirely disconcerted the Indians. 
Inasmuch as he had given his word at the time they desired an audience 
that their persons should be safe. Gladwin said he would hold his pro- 
mise inviolable, though they so little deserved it. However, he advised 
them to make the besl of their way out of the fort, lest his youug 
men. on being acquainted with their treacherous purposes, should 
• in everyone of them to pieces. Pontiac endeavored to contradict the 
lion, and to make excuses for his suspicious conduct; but Gladwin 
I to 1 and the Indians sullenly left the fort. 

kate that alter n six warriors returned, bringing with them an old 

ftquaw, savin- that sin- had given false information. Gladwin declared 
that she had never given any kind of advice. 8 When they insisted that he 
namc ""• author of what he had heard in regard to a plot, he simply 

Jmrnal DoobtloM thin is the ori K in of the romance of the Indian girl. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 619 

replied that it was one of themselves, whose name he promised never to 
reveal. Whereupon, thej wenl off and carried the old woman with them. 
When they arrived in camp, Pontiac seized the prisoner and gave lier 

three strokes with a stick on the head, which laid her Hat on tl„- ground, 
and (he whole nation assembled around her, and called. -Kill her! kill 
her." 

The next day was Sunday, and late in the afternoon Pontiac and sei 
eral of his chiefs paddled across the placid river to smoke the pipe of 
peace with the officers of the fort. Gladwin, suspicious of so much pro 
testation, refused to go near them; but Captain Campbell, unwilling to 
lose a chance to pacify the Indians, smoked the peace-pipe with them 
outside the fort and took back to Gladwin the message that next day all 
the nation would come to council, where everything would he settled to 
the satisfaction of the English, after which the Indians would inline 
diately disperse, so as to remove all suspicion. 

At ten o'clock next morning the anxious watchers behind the palisades 
saw a fleet of canoes coming around the lower point of the long island, 
and as the swift-darting boats, hurried by paddle and current, covered 
the three miles of water the soldiers counted fifty-six of these barks, each 
carrying seven or eight Indians. The bows of the canoes rested lightly 
on the sand of the sloping bank, and the warriors made their way to the 
fort only to find the gates fast barred against them. Instead of the cor 
dial welcome they expected, an interpreter met them with the message 
that not above sixty chiefs might enter. Whereupon Pontiac, enraged at 
seeing the futility of all his stratagems, and yet confident of ultimate 
success, in his most peremptory manner bade the interpreter say to 
Gladwin that if all the Indians had not free access to the fort, none of 
them would enter it. "Tell him," said the angry chief, "that he may stay 
in his fort, and that I will keep the country." Then Pontiac strode to 
his canoe and paddled for the Ottawa village. His followers, knowing 
that the fight was on. ran like fiends to the house of an English 
woman and her two sons, whom they tomahawked and scalped. An 
other party paddled swiftly to Isle an Cochon, where they first killed 
twenty-four of King George's bullocks, and then put to death an old Eng 
lish sergeant. Afterwards, the Canadians buried the mutilated corpse; 
but on returning to the spot, so tradition relates, they were surprised to 
see an arm protruding from the grave. Thrice the dirt was heaped 
above the bodv, and thrice the arm raised itself above the ground, until 
the mound was sprinkled with holy water; then the perturbed spirit left 
the bodv in peace never since disturbed. Having put to death all the 
English outside the fort, the Indians sent to Gladwin a Frenchman to 
report both the killing of the woman and her children and also the mur- 
der of Sir Robert Davers, Captain Robertson and a boat's crew ot six 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

,, had !»• a senl to the St. Clair flats to discover a passage 

i n. is bound to Michilimackinac. This information 

l lingering doubts thai the Indians were determined to wipe 
..lit the English al Detroit. 

dm bis return to the Ottawa village, Pontiac ordered the squaws to 
change the camp to the western bank, above the fort. As the night 
gathered upon the tireless river, dropping a curtain between the 
great chief ;m<l his enemies, Pontiac bimself, hideous in war paint, 
leaped into the center of the ring of braves, and nourishing his toma- 
liawk, began to chanl the record of his valorous deeds. One by one the 
listening braves, catching the contagion from their mighty chief, were 
drawn into the ring, until al last every savage was wildly dancing the 
war-dance. There was no sleep for the garrison that night. Gladwin, 
as be paced the wide streel thai encircled the buildings of the fort just 
within the pickets, io.>k council with himself as to how he might with- 
stand his crafty enemies. Burning arrows, silent messengers of destruc- 
tion, might easily set fire to the four score or more wooden buildings 
within the enclosure; and the church, standing near the palisades, was 
particularly exposed, unless, indeed, the superstitious Indians should 
hearken to (heir only less superstitious French allies, who had threatened 
the savages with the vengeance of the Great Spirit if they should 
attempt to destroy the house of God. The two six-pounders, the three- 
pounder and the mortars composing the battery of the fort were of little 
avail againsl an enemy thai foughl singly and from behind trees or what- 
ever protei tion the opportunities mighl afford; but, on the other hand, 
an English bead above the pickets or an English body at a port hole was 
the sure lodgmenl for an Indian bullet. The garrison was made up of 
one hundred and twenty two soldiers and eight officers, together with 
about forty fur traders and their assistants. These traders would fight 
e ih.ir lives, but were inclined to the French rather than to the 
English. Between this little garrison and the thousand savages was a 
Bingle row of palisades made by planting logs dose toe-ether so that they 
would stand twenty live feel above ground. Blockhouses at the angles 

and at the gates afforded additional pr cl ion; and, best of all, the 

brimming river, whose little waves lapped the sandy shore near the south 
line of palisades, gave an abundant water supply. A schooner and a 
sloop, both armed, mighl be relied on to keep open the line of communi- 
cation with Niagara, whence .Major Walters would send supplies. Pro- 
mot.on would be the reward of success; the torture-stake the penalty of 
failure. r J 

omes before dawn was in the air when Gladwin joined 
•he anxious watchers in the bl ockhouse. The pl acid river seemed a 

lalrmont'a testimony, (jlmlwiu Mss. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 



621 



great mirror reflecting the brighter stars. Gradually the black outlines 
of low farm houses and encircling woods melted into gray; and then 
beyond the wooded island a disc of molten gold, pushing itself higher 
and higher, made of the deep waters a broad pathway of shimmering 
light. On the low bluff far up the river, Gladwin's anxious eye discov 
ered the lodges of Pontiac's Ottawas, who, under the cover of the aighl 
had paddled around tin- head of the island and noiselessly established 
themselves above the line of French farmhouses. This meanl a siege; 
and as the commandant was still gazing at the preparations for war, a' 
pattering of bullets against the blockhouse announced the beginning'of 
hostilities. 

During the morning a party of Wyandottes, summoned by Pontiac to 
a council, stopped at the fort on their way. Fortified by English rum, 
they went off to the meeting-place under promise to Gladwin thai they 
would do all they could to appease the Ottawas and dissuade them from 
further hostilities. Next came a number of the French set this, bring- 
ing with them chiefs of the Ottawas, Wyandottes. Chippewas and Pot 
tawattamies, who told Gladwin that almost all the French had gathered 
at the house of the trader M. Cuillerie, where the Indians were to hold 
their council. They assured Gladwin that if he would allow Captain 
<'ampbell 10 and another officer to go to the council, it would aot be hard 
to persuade the Indians to make peace. At any rate, it could do no harm 
to try; for both the French and the Indians promised to sec that the 
popular old Captain and his companion returned in safety thai very 
night. Gladwin, having little hope of turning Pontiac from his pur- 
poses, was reluctant to intrust Captain Campbell to their hands; hut the 
Captain, relying on the friendship that had existed between him and the 
savages, no less than on the promises id' the French, urged to lie allowed 
to go to the council. The deciding influence which broughl Gladwin to 
consent was the absolute necessity of getting into the fori a supply of 
corn, Hour and bear's grease; for the garrison had in store not more than 
enough for three weeks. So, while Captain Campbell and Lieutenant 
McDougall went oil' with high hopes, the prudent commandant, under 
cover of the darkness, set about gathering provisions from the French 
settlers across the river. 

Scarcely had the embassy of peace crossed the cleared space aboul the 
fort than they were met by M. Gouin, who first urged ami then begged 
them not to trust their lives in the hands of the now excited Indians. 
The appeal was vain. Vet even while (he party were making their way 
along the bank of the river, they were set upon by a crowd of Indians, al 
whose hands they would have fared ill indeed had not 1'ontiac himself 
cometotherescue. On reachingthe appointed place of meeting, they found 

"> Cooler and other historians confuse Captain Campbell with Major Campbell, who came later. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

tbelargesl room filled with French and Indians, [nthecenter of the group 
rrayed in a ha1 and coal adorned with gold law. 1 ' lie 

: when the tw Heers entered and remained covered during 

When bread was passed, he ate one piece to show the 
Indians, uk lit* said, thai it was no1 poisoned. Pontiac, addressing him- 
»,.|f to M. Cuillerie, craftily said thai he looked upon the Frenchman as 
,„,„. to life, and as the commandant at Detroit until the 
arrival of M. Bellestre, the former French commandant. Then Pontiac, 
turning to the British officers, told them plainly that to secure 
the English mnsl leave the country under escorl and without arms 
or baggage. Thereupon M. Guillerie warmly shook Lieutenant McDou- 
gall's hand, saying, "My friend, this is my work; rejoice that I have 

obtained such g I terms for you. I thoughl Pontiac would be mucli 

harder." Boping againsl hope for the garrison, bul apprehensive of no 
to himself and his brother officer, Captain Campbell 
made a Bhorl bul earnest plea for peace. Then he and Lieutenant 
McDougall waited anxiously for the usual grunt of approval. The 
moments dragged, and si ill the Indians sat impassive. For the space of 
an hour there was unbroken silence. Then Captain Campbell, dejected 
by evidenl failure, arose to retrace his steps to the fort. "My father," 
-.,,,] Pontiac quietly, "will sleep tonight in the lodges of his red children." 
The unusual intelligence that bad raised Pontiac above every other 
Indian chief, had led the English to rely on his sense of honor, a quality 
rare indeed among savages. What civilized races call treachery is to 
the Indian legitimate warfare. H never occurs to a savage to expose 
If in harm in order to accomplish an end that he can attain safely 
l.\ deception. In spite of all promises, therefore, the two Englishmen 
were senl under Btrong guard to the house of M. Meloche. That they 
were no1 immediately put to death was due solely to the fact that Glad- 
win held Bevera] Pottawattamie prisoners, and Pontiac shrewdly enough 
d thai if the commandanl should retaliate on his hostages, that 
tribe would vanish into the forest, leaving him without the support he so 
much needed. 

ain Campbell and Lieutenant McDougall trusted to the promises 
of the French more than to those of the Indians. It 1ms been assumed 
that the French at Detroil were the victims of the Pontiac conspiracy 
onh to a less degree than were the English. It is true that there were a 
few prudent French farmers who cave to Gladwin what assistance they 
could give without drawing down on themselves the enmity of the 
Indians; hut it was generally b Sieved a ig the French that the Eng- 
lish would s i be driven oul of New France, and that the French king 

would heir larch. For two centuries the warfare between 

>.iiMHS. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 623 

French and English over the fur trade had been as barbarous as war was 
in Europe during the same timr; human life on either side of the Atlantic 
was not considered worth a King's serious consideration; and the sol 
dier of that day in every nation was a freebooter. It is nm surprising 
that the French traders and wood rangers at Detroit should have seized 
upon Pontiac's war to despoil their ancienl enemies ami their conquerors 
of less than three years' standing. The only cause for surprise is that the 
French did not from the start openly make common cause with Pontiac. 
That they secretly gave aid and encouragement to the Indians was 
repeatedly charged by Gladwin. The convincing proof of his assertions 
is to be found in the official reports of inquiries he caused to be held at 
Detroit during the siege, reports which after more than a century ami a 
quarter of oblivion, have been found and made available by one el' Clad 
win's descendants. The problem for Gladwin was to hold out at Detroit 
until both the French and Indians could be convinced that the French 
government could not assist them and that the peace with England was 
definite and lasting. 

The terms proposed to Captain Campbell were offered next day to 
Gladwin, and the French urged him to escape while he might; but the 
young Englishman absolutely refused to make any terms with savages. 
His soldiers caught his spirit, so that he was able to write confidently to 
General Amherst, that he would hold out until succor should come. The 
schooner Gladwin, which bore the dispatch, eluded Pontiac's canoes; 
and when the chief reported his failure to M. Cuillerie, the Frenchman 
jeered at him because five canoes withdrew at the death of a single Pot 
tawattamie. 12 

Now began a long series of disasters (o the English. Cue by one the 
results of Pontiac's plotting transpired. Everything seemed to be giv- 
ing way before the exulting savages. On May 22 news came of the cap 
ture of Fort Sandusky. 1 '- At the inquiry Ensign Paully testified that on 
May 17 his sentry called him to speak with some Indians at the gate. 
Finding some of his own Indians in the party, he allowed seven to enter 

the fort and gave them tobacco. Soon 01 f I he seven raised his head 

as a signal, whereupon the two sitting next tl fticer seized and bound 

him and hurried him from the room. He passed his sentry dead in the 
gateway and saw the corpses of his little garrison lying about. His ser- 
geant was killed in the garden where he had been planting; the mer- 
chants were dead and their stores were plundered. The Indians spared 
Paully and took him to their camp at Detroit, where he was ado], id as 
the husband of a widowed squaw, from whose toils he finally escaped to 
his friends in the fort. On May IS, Ensign Holmes, who commanded the 
garrison of the Miamis. was told by a Frenchman that Detroit had been 

" Gladwin MSS. 



Tin; GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

ed, wherenpoo the ensign called in his men and 8e1 them at work 
mn |.j, hrce days later Holmes' [ndian servant besought 

t t i tn to of her friends who lay ill in a cabin outside the stock- 

rand of mercy he was shol dead. The terrified garrison 
of nine were only too glad to surrender a1 the i ommand of two French- 
men. I'ontiac's messengers, who were on their way to the Illinois to get 

mandanl for Detroit. On May 25, at Fort St. Joseph, seventeen 

nattainies came into Lieutenant Schlosser's room on the pretense 
of holding a council. A Frenchman who had heard that treachery was 
planned, rushed in to give the alarm, whereupon Lieutenant Schlosser 

ized, ten of the garrison were killed, and the other three with the 
commnndanl were made prisoners. They were afterwards brought to 
Detroit and exchanged. 

On the 29th the long expected bateaux from Niagara were seen com- 
ing up i lie river. With joyful hearts the garrison looked forward to the 
end of their tedious siege. Bu1 as the boats came nearer, the English 
saw with dismay that Indians were the masters of the craft. When the 
foremost bateaux came opposite the schooner, two soldiers in her made 
the motion to change rowing places. Quickly they seized the Indians 
ami threw them overboard. One Indian carried his assailant with him 
ami in the struggle both found death. Another soldier struck the 
remaining Indian over the head with an oar and killed him. Under the 
tire of sixty savages on the shore the three plucky Englishmen escaped 
ressel with their prize, which contained eight barrels of most 
acceptable pork and Hour, of the ten bateaux that had set out from 
Niagara under Lieutenanl Cuyler, eighl had been captured and the force 
had been completely routed by an Indian surprise and night attack. 
Following the capture of the bateaux came the darkest days of the siege. 
Often during a whole day. the Indians, drunken on the rum from the cap- 
tured stores, did not fire a shot, but in their fiendish glee they gave notice 
of their presence by sending the scalped and mangled bodies of English 

'■s to lioal pasl the palisades in sighl of the sentries. 

To add to these tales of disaster came Father La Jaunay, missionary 

at Michilimackinac (Old Mackinac) 1o tell the bloodiest story of all. On 

June L'. the Chippewas living near the foil assembled for their usual 

gan f ball. They played from morning till noon ami Captain George 

ington and Lieutenanl Leslie stood by to watch the sport. Suddenly 
the ball was struck over the palisades. A dozen Indians rushed through 
the gate to gel it. Before the dazed sentry could recover, the Captain 
l ieutenanl were seized and hurried off; the Indians within the fort 
had received from the squaws stationed there hatchets hidden under 
their blankets; in an instant Lieutenant Jamet, fifteen soldiers and a 
trader named Tracj wore put to death, five others were reserved for a 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 625 

like fate, and the remainder of the garrison were made prisoners. Had 
it not been for the powerful influence of Charles Langlade" and his 
friends the Ottawas, all the English must have perished; as it was Cap- 
tain Etherington, Lieutenant Leslie, with fourteen men. were held until 
July is, and were then taken to Montreal by the Ottawas. 

On Sunday, the 26th of June. Pontiac, for mingled purposes of religion 
and business, paddled across the green river to attend mass in the little 
French chapel. When the services were over, the chief selected three of 
the chairs in which the thrifty French had been carried to church, and 
making the owners his chairmen, he and his guard set off on a search for 
provisions. He imitated the credit certificates issue, 1 , by Clad win and 
gave in payment for cattle billets signed by his mark, the picture of a 
coon. The provisions were transported to Pontiac's camp near Parent's 
Creek, and in due time the billets were redeemed. The next day Pontiac 
sent another summons to surrender, saying thai nine hundred Indians 
were on their way from Michiliniackinae. and if Gladwin waited till 
those Indians came he would not be answerable for the consequences. 
Gladwin replied that until Captain Campbell and Lieutenant McDougall 
were returned, Pontiac might save himself the trouble of sending mes- 
sages to the fort. To this the wily Pontiac made answer that he had too 
much regard for his distinguished captives to send them back: because 
the kettle was on the fire for the entire garrison, and in case they were 
returned he should have to boil them with the rest. 

On the 30th of June, the Gladwin, returning from Niagara, plow, ,1 her 
way up the white-capped river and landed a force of fifty men. together 
with provisions and some much needed ammunition. For two months 
Gladwin had guarded Detroit against surprise and had sustained a siege 
conducted by Pontiac in person, while fort after fort laid fallen before 
the savages. As the Indians returned from their successes elsewhere 
they were more and more eager for the overthrow of the one fort that 
hitherto had battled all their efforts. In his extremity Pontiac now 
turned on the French and threatened to force them to take up arms 
against the English. During the siege, however, copies of the definitive 
treaty between France and England had reached Detroit ; and. on July 4, 
Gladwin assembled the French, read to them the articles of peace, and 
sent a copy across the river to the priest. Thereupon, forty Frenchmen 
choosing James Stirling as their leader, took service under Gladwin. On 
this same day a party from the fort made a sortie for the purpose of 
bringing in some powder and lead from the house of M. Baby, who had 
taken refuge in the fort. Lieutenant Hay, an old Indian tighter, com- 
manded the force, and in his exu ltation over driving off an attacking 

Doubtless Pontiac then fought with him. 
79 



526 GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

party, he tore the scalp from the head of a wounded Indian and shook 

ophy in the face of his enemies. It happened that the one of the 

lied was the son of a Chippewa chief; and as soon as the tribe 

i of their disaster they wenl to Pontiac to reproach him for being 

ol their ills, sayingthat be was verj brave in taking a loaf of 

beef from a Frenchman who made no resistance, but it was 

the Chippewas who had all the men killed and wounded every day. 

fore, they said, they intended to take from him what he had been 

Lieutenant McDougall had already made his escape to the fort; 

Imi 1 1 1 . - \ wenl t" Meloche's house, where the brave old Captain Campbell 

ill confined. They stripped him, carried him to their camp, killed 

him, look out his heart and ale it, nil off his head, and divided his body 

into small pieces. Such was tl e end of a brave soldier, esteemed, loved 
and sincei-eh mourned in the army from General Amherst and Colonel 
Rouquel down to the privates who served under him. 

A i midnight on July 10 the sentries in the fort saw iloating down t lie 
black river a great mass of lire. The flames, feeding on faggots and 
lurch hark, leaped high in the air. lighting np the forest-covered island 
in the background and bringing into high relief the whitewashed cot- 
ihat lined the shore. Hurried by the swift current, a great fire 
raft, built by the French and Indians, made for the two vessels anchored 
in the stream; luit the alert crews had anticipated their danger and were 
prepared for it. The \essels were anchored by two cables, and as the 
(laming pile approached, they slipped one cable and easily swung out 
of the wa\ of the enemy. 

The hot di 'l.-d each other all too slowly; but on the 29th of 

• Inly the guards heard firing down the river, and half an hour later the 
surprised sent ii,s saw the broad surface of the river dotted with bateaux, 
the regular dip of whose oars was home a long way or, the still morning 
air. A detachmenl of two hundred and sixty men under the command 
of ( laptain I >alzell, one of < leneral Amherst's aides-de-camp, had come to 
I" 11 :| " end to the siege. Captain Dalzell was an officer of undoubted 
bravery, and the tales of slaughter he had heard at Presque Isle and San 
dusky on his wax to Delroit made him anxious lo crush Tontiac by one 
bold stroke. Gladwin, whom months of close acquaintance with the 
wan Indian chief had taughl discretion, gave consent to Dalzell's plan 
of a night attack, only on the threat of the latter to leave Detroit unless 
such a blow Bhould be struck." The treacherous French, learning the 
details of the plan, immediately pul Pontiac on his guard. In the earliest 
"' ,h " ::U| of July, Dalzell marched a force of two hundred and 

, , v ,r,- r n.., y „p p?? ed h/th.former. There 

,oah t'the »n 'f'v ","* VV 1 " (onn,s ' Historical Society 
fiiTiinal ■ ' Madeleine ile Tonnanconr, and that when Rhe 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 627 

fifty men along the sandy hank of the swift flowing river, passed the well 
enclosed cottages of the French and on towards a little stream that fell 
into the river about a mile and a half above the fort. 

The twenty live men in advance had just stepped on the rude bridge 
across the run. whm from the ridges that formed the further side of 
the gully came a volley of musketry that hurled the little band in con- 
fusion back on the main body. In the pitchy darkness, cheered on by 
Dalzell's steady words of command, the British swept the ridges only 
to find themselves chasing those deadly will-o'-the-wisps, the Hashes of 
an enemy's guns. To fall back was absolutely necessary; but here 
again the soldiers were met by the rapid tiring of the Indians who had 
occupied the houses and orchards between the English and the fort. 
Every charge of the soldiers only enveloped the pursuers in a maze of 
buildings, trees and fences, while the Indians beat a nimble retreat. 
firing from behind any shelter they could find. From an open cellar, the 
concealed savages poured a deadly fire into the British ranks; Km 
still Dalzell was undismayed. Where commands were of no effect, he 
beat the men with the flat of his sword. Major Robert Rogers, trained 
in Indian warfare, burst open the door of a cottage tilled with Indians, 
and with his Rangers put the ambushed savages to flight. Captain » taj 
fell mortally wounded in a charge. Dalzell himself, twice wounded. 
went to the succor of a helpless sergeant, when he too fell dead, and the 
Indians smeared their faces with his heart's blood. Major Rogers, who 
succeeded to the command, took possession of the well built Campau 
house, where his soldiers, fortified without by solid logs and bales of 
furs, and strengthened within by copious draughts from a keg of 
whisky, held the enemy at bay until communication could be had with 
the fort. Two bateaux armed with swivels soon came to the rescue 
of Rogers, w T ho had been besieged by about two hundred Indians. The 
remainder of the force under Captain Grant beat an orderly retreat. Of 
the two hundred and fifty who went out. one hundred and fifty-nine were 
killed or wounded, while the Indian loss did not exceed twenty. 

This victory of Bloody Run. as the creek was ever afterward called, 
restored the waning fortunes of Pontiac, and every day brought acces- 
sions to his forces. Yet never since the siege began was Major Gladwin 
more hopeful of ultimate success. So the heats of August passed with an 
occasional skirmish, and September began. The Indians, powerless 
against the palisades, again turned their attention to thevessels that kept 
open the food communication with the settlers across the river and made 
occasional trips to Fort Niagara for supplies and ammunition. From one 
of these latter voyages the schooner Gladtoin was returning on the night 
of September 4, when, the wind failing, she anchored nine miles below 
the fort, having on board her commander. Hoist, her mate, Jacobs, and 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

„ men. Six Iroquois, supposed to be friendly to the English, 

thai morning, and to their brethren was probably due 

made by a large force of Indians, whose light canoes 

drop] iv down the dark river thai a single cannon shot and 

ollej of musketry was all the welcome thai could be given them. 

r t .|| i the flrsl onslaught, and Jacobs, seeing that all hope was 

miuand to blow up the ressel. At the word some Wyan 

, knew the meaning of the command, gave warning to their 

t ,ious. and all made a dash overboard, swimming for dear life to be 

,1 the dreaded destruction. Jacobs, no less astonished than grati- 

of his words, had no further trouble that night, and the 

morning he sailed away to the fort. Six of the sailors escaped 

unhurl to wear the medals presented to them for bravery. 15 

From ill-- beginning of the siege Pontiac had relied on help from the 
. in the Illinois country, to whom he had sent an appeal for aid. 
•■sine.' Father Bellestre departed," he said, "the Indians had no news, 
nor did any letti French, but the English alone received 

letters. The English say incessantly thai since the French and Span- 
ave been overthrown, they own all the country. When our father, 
M. Bellestre, was going off from hence, he told us. 'My children the Eng- 
lish today overthrow your lather; as long as they have the upper hand ye 
will not have what ye stand in need of; but this will not last.' We pray 
our fat her at the Illinois to take pity on us and say, 'These poor children 
are w illing to raise me up.' Why do we that which we are doing today? 
It is because- we are unwilling that the English should possess these 
lands; this is what causeth thy children to rise up and strike every 

U here." 

This mess endorsed by the Chippewas and by the French 

inhabitants at Detroit, tin- latter complaining that they were obliged to 

submit to Indian exactions. .M. Xeyons, the French commandant in the 

Illinois country, acting under pressure from General Amherst (who had 

learned from Gladwin how essential to Pontiac's success was the 

ted help from the French) replied to the appeal that "the great day 

had come al last wherein it had pleased the .Master of Life to command 

'.real King of France and him of England to make peace 

between them, sorry to see the blood of men spilled so long." So these 

tiad ordered all their chiefs and warriors to bury the hatchet. He 

promised that when this was done the Indians would see the road free, 

the hikes and rivers unstopped and ammunition and merchandise would 

abound in their villages; their women and children would be cloaked; 

«ould go to dames and festivals, not cumbered with heavy 

■lollies, with skirts, blanke ts and ribbands. "Forget then, my dear 

ufm*n AbrmJiaii. i.lwiu Mss 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. g 2 9 

children," he commanded," "all evil talks. Leave off from spilling the 

blood of your brethren, the English. Our hearts are now l f0 u 

cannot, at present, strike the one without having the other for an enemv 

also."' 

Tins message had the desired effect. Dated on September 27 it. con 
tents so dashed Pontiac's hopes thai on October 12 he sued tnosl submis 
sivelv for peace. Gladwin, being in need of Hour, granted a truce bul 
made no promises, savin- thai General Amherst alone had power to 

granl pardon. To Amherst the commandant wrote that it would be g I 

policy to leave matters open until the spring, when the Indians would be 
so reduced for want of powder there would be no danger that they would 
break out again, "provided some examples are mad.' of our good friends 
the French, who set them on/' Gladwin then adds. "No advantage ran In- 
gained by prosecuting the war. owing to the difficulty of catching them 
(the Indians). Add to this the expense of such a war which, if continued, 
the ruin of our entire peltry trad,, must follow and the loss of a prodi- 
gious consumption of our merchandise. If will be tin- means of their 
retiring, which will reinforce other nations on the Mississippi, whom 
they will push against us. and make them our enemies forever. Conse- 
quently it will render it extremely difficult to pass that country, and 
especially as the French have promised to supply them with everything 
they want." 

Then follows th<- passage 17 oftm quoted to show Gladwin's cynical bru 
tality: '-They have lost between eighty and ninety of their best warriors; 
but if your excellency still intends to punish them for their barbarities, 
it may be easier done, without any expense to the crown, by permitting 
a free sale of rum, which will destroy them more effectually than lire and 
sword. - ' Parkman closes the quotation at this point; but a very differ- 
ent turn is given to the matter in the next sentence, taken from the draft 
of the letter in Gladwin's own handwriting, as follows: "Bu1 on i he con- 
trary, if you intend to accommodate matters in spring, which I hope you 
will for the above reasons, it may lie necessary to send up Sir William 
Johnson. - ' This is the letter of a warrior, who was also somewhat of a 
statesman. 

Pontiac's conspiracy ended in failure. Tor live months the little gar 
rison at Detroit had been surrounded by a thousand or more savages; 
and nothing but the untiring watchfulness and The intrepid coolness of 
the resourceful commandant saved tin- post from annihilation and pre 
vented the Indian occupation of the lake country. General Amherst was 
so well pleased with Gladwin's course during the first four monl lis of 1 he 
siege that on .September IT, he wrote to the Secretary at War, Ellis: "As 

16 Gladwin M83. 

" Gladwin DISS. This letter is io Gladwin's own handwriting, and is doubtless his original draft. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

there have been two deputy adjutants general serving hero, I have taken 
i1m . |ibert mark of my entire satisfaction of Major Gladwin s 

cl and commendable behavior in appointing him a deputy 
,„,,,,. ,,,„ toremain with the troops al Detroil in the same 
manner as has been ordered. This is no more than a name, but should 
„ be your gracious pleasure to approve it. and honor Major Gladwin 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel, I am firmly of the opinion that the 
promotion of so deserving an officer must at any time be a benefit to his 
majesty's Bervice, and this is the solo view I have in mentioning it to 
you." General Amherst's recommendations were followed, and Gladwin 
held the rank of lieutenanl colonel until he was made a colonel in 1777. 

H f e i] to the ]<>i of Colonel Bradstreet, the hero of Fort Frontenac, to 
be greal force which was to confirm the British power in the lake 
country. The vain glory of that officer led him to make with the Indians 
a peace which General Gates, who had succeeded Amherst, was com- 
pelled i" repudiate. Bradstreet's expedition got no further than San- 
dusky, but a detachmenl reached Detroil late in the August of 17C4, and 
on the last day of that month Colonel Gladwin departed from Niagara on 
his way to New York. Be was heartily tired of lighting Indians, and 
preferred to resign rather than to undertake another campaign of that 
Kind. Returning to England, we find him in 177-1 living a contented life 
with his wife and two children; but ready again to take up arms for his 
king. ( »n a visit i" London he « as presented to < leorge III, who asked 
him hew long he had been in town. "Three weeks," replied the soldier, 
ternation of George Wert, who whispered to him to say that 
he had just arrived. "But," says Gladwin, in a letter to General Gage, 
ourt only on that occasion, 1 thought there could be no 
harm in Bpeaking the truth." 

In April, L769, Pontiac wenl to St. Louis. One day he arrayed himself 
in the uniform of a French officer, given him years before by the Marquis 
de Montcalm. After visiting his old friends, he repaired to the village 
of Cahokia, across the Mississippi, where he joined in the feast given by 
the Illinois Indians. In the early morning he left the town for the 
forest, singing as he went. An English trader, Wilkinson by name, 
awaiting the opportunity and thinking to rid his country of a dangerous 
enemy, promised an Illinois Indian a barrel of rum to murder the famous 
chief. This treachery on the pari of one of their number, cost the Illinois 
dear, for Pontiac's friends did nol cease till they had practically wiped 
oul the Illinois nation. The bodj of the chief was buried with military 
honors near the fori al St. Louis. "Neither mound nor tablet," says 
an, •'marked the burial place of l'ontiac For a mausoleum a city 
has ii be forest hero; and the race whom he hated with such 

burning rancor trample with unceasing footsteps over his forgotten 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 631 



EXTRACTS OP LETTERS, DECLARATIONS, ETC. 

EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER FROM CAPT. GEORGE ETHERINGTON COMMANDANT OF 
MICHILIMACKINAC, DATED MICHILIMAIKIMAKI MAC. .JUNE 12, 1763. 

Sir: Notwithstanding what I wrote you in my last, thai all the savages 
were arrived, & that everything seemed in perfed tranquility; yet on 
the second instant the Chippewas who live in a plain near this fort, 
assembled to play ball, as they bad dime almost every day since their 
arrival; They play'd from morning till noon, then throwing their ball 
close to the gate, and observing Lieut. Leslie and me a few paces out of 

it, they came behind us. seized, and carried us into the w Is. In the 

meantime the rest rushed into the fort, where they found their squaws, 
whom they had previously planted there, with their hatchets hid under 
their blankets, which they took and in an instant killed Lieut. Garnet 
and fifteen rank and file, and a trader named Tracy; they wounded two 
and took the rest of the garrison prisoners, five of which they have since 
killed. 

They made prisoners of all the English traders, and robb'd them of 
everything they had; but offered no violence to any of the persons and 
properties of the Frenchmen. 

When this massacre was over Messrs. Langlad and Farti, the inter- 
preter came down to the place where Lieut. Leslie and me were prisoners, 
and on their giving themselves as security to return us when demanded, 
they obtained leave for us to go to the fort under a guard of savages, 
which gave time by the assistance of the above mentioned gentlemen to 
send for the Oatewas, who came down on the first notice and were very 
much displeased at what the Chippewas had done. 

Since the arrival of the Oatawas they have done everything in their 
power to serve us. and with what prisoners the Chippewas have given 
them and what they have bought, 1 have now with me Lieut. Leslie and 
eleven privates, & the other four of the garrison who are yet living 
remain in the hands of the Chippewas. 

The Chipewas, who are superior in numbers to the Outawas, have 
declared in council to them that if they do not remove us out of the fort. 
that they will cutt off all communication to this post ; by w hich means all 
the convoys of merchants from Montreal, Labay, St. Joseph & the upper 
posts would perish; but if the news of your posts being attack'd (which 
they say was the reason they took up the hatchet here) be false, and you 
can send up a strong reinforcemenl with provisions, etc. accompany'd 
by some of your savages, I believe the post might be re established again. 
Since this affair happened, two cannoes arrived from Montreal which put 



THK OLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

,,.,. ,,, make a pi I e Outawa nation, who very well 

, anything thai can be done for them. 
I have been very mncb obliged to Messrs. Langlad and Parti, the inter- 
preter, as likewise the Jesuil for the many good offices they have done 
on; the priesl seems inclinable to go down to your post 
for a daj or two, whirl, 1 am very glad of, as he is a very pood man and 
has n great deal to say with the savages hereabout, who will believe 
thing he tells them on his return, which I hope will be soon. 
The Outawas say they will take Lieut. Leslie, me and the eleven men 
which 1 mentioned before was in their hands, up to their village & 
there keep us till they hear what is dune at your post, they having sent 
this canoe for thai purpose. I refer you to the priest for the particulars 
of this melancholy affair, and am, 

Dear Sir, Yours very sincerely, 

( Signed ) Geo. Etherington. 
i. .iv hi lommandanl of Detroit. 
P. S. The Indians that are lo carry the priest to Detroit, will not 
undertake to land him at the fort, but at some of the Indian villages 
near it. so that you must net take it amiss that he does not pay you the 
first visit, and I mice mure beg thai nothing may stop your sending him 
back tic uex1 day after his arrival, if possible, as we shall be at a great 
or the want ef him. and I make no doubt that you will do all in your 
power to make peace, as you see Hie situation we are in, and send up pro- 
\isions as seen as possible ami ammunition, as what we had was plun- 
dered by the savages. Adicw . <;. E. 

I DECLARATION MADE TO CfflSAK COBMtCK AND THE THEREIN NAMED 
WITNESSES, \l DETROIT, 11 JUNE, 1761. 

We undermentioned -lames Sterling, merchant, and Samson Fleming, 
deputy commissary of this place, being call'd by Caesar Cormick, also 
merchanl here, 1><> Certify to have beared the intelligence of a person 
we contrast, as being well informed by said person hitherto, of all 
the conspiracies made against Bis Brittanick Majesty's subjects since they 
came to Detroit to the satisfaction of the commanding officer particularly 
*'""" the pi. -m siege. The said person has declared before us, that 
Miny chain. Jacque Godfrey, .^ Messrs. Beauban, Chavin and Labadee 
went frein here the l'Jth or L3tli ultimo, being the third or fourth day of 
the siege, publickly as 1 1 ; i -y pretended for an officer from the Illinois to 
disperse the Nations, and in ibis way they met John Welch, Merchant 

fr Miamis in the Mouth of the Miamis River with two Pettiagus 

l " ; " 1 " 1 w >th peltry bound for this Place: The said five Frenchmen 
ordered n band of Indians who were with them to hide themselves in the 
" ' ' l " > " b . v - u " ,m U»ej would entice the English ashore; then hailing 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 633 

them to come and smoke a pipe and pet the news, they came ashore and 
sate down; the said Frenchmen then seised and tole them they were their 
prisoners and calling up the Indians they divided the prisoners and 
peltry betwixt them, then the said Chain & Godfrey detached the other 
three companions back to Detroit, with their share of t lit* booty, & Mr. 
Welch prisoner; who came and lodged the same in the House of the 
abovesaid Miny Chain next in the settlement to the Potewatamis Vil- 
lage, that the Outawas Claiming Mr. Welch seised, and murdered him 
sine-; and that the said ( Milawas came this day seised and carried off the 
said peltry, and tole them that the French had no business with any plun- 
der, 'nit that it belong'd entirely to the Indians. The said Informer like- 
wise declared that the said Chain and Godfrey took also four of the said 
Prisoners along with them, saying that they would take them to the Illi- 
nois and make soup of them to spirit up the Indians to War and come 
against the English, which they now daily expect here. And that the 
said Chain and Godfrey proceeding with the same Indians to Miamis, 
with whom they acted in conjunction to destroy that garrison: Then 
parted for Ouitanon intending to act the same barbarous part there; 
being in their way to Illinois. 

We then questioned the said Informer if we could depend upon the 
abovesaid intelligence, or from whence they were derived. Answered, 
that Niniway a Potewatamis Chief sent for Isedore Chain brother to the 
saidMinyChain theEvening that he the saidNiniway arrived with Ensign 
Schlosser Commanding Officer of SI. Josephs and acquainted him of 
what his brother Miny had done at Miamis; that the said Isedore in tears 
replied that he wished to Cod his Brother might die in thai Place, for as 
soon as he arrived at Detroit he would be hanged. And that the said 
Informer declares to have been present when all this was told by the said 
Niniway in the house of the abovesaid Minay Chain. 

Signed, C.ksai; Cobmick. 

Witnesses, 

James Sterling, 

Samuel Fleming. 

intrusted out of a letter from lieut. edward jenkins, u0mmand1v. a] 

ouiatinon to major henry gladwin, commandant of detroit, 

date fort ouiatinon, 29 july, 17h3. 

Sir: Two days ago the Dearer arrived from the Illinois, who assures 
me that the People in that pail of the World are for a quid lite. I mean 
the French; but he says the Indians wanted the Commanding officer to 
come and attack these Posts, which he refused. The English woman 
that is along with him, told me that the Canadians were advising the 
Indians to Murder us all in these Posts, but that they would not be seen 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

in ii themselves; bnl 1 Bhall say do more of it, as the woman will acquaint 

yon all she knows aboul It; Sh< heared the bearer talk of; 

indeed I wonld have examined him, bu1 the woman was afraid, as she 

farther with him, &you are in a mnch better place for it than I. 

. >U LIEUT. EDWARD JENKINS, COMMANDING. AT ODIATINON 
DATED • MUCH. 1763, rO MA JOB HENRY BALDWIN, COMMANDING AT DETROIT. 

sir: The bearer arrived from the Posl lasl Sunday, with two more 
tern and liis wife. They have no1 beard yet below of the cessation 
of Alius, ami I am acquainted by .Monsieur La Pond that we have 
attacked, or al leasl blocked up some Place near the Mississippi; indeed 
I don'1 well understand him as he has an odd way of talking, but Capt. 
Campble will understand him better. .Mr. Crawford acquainted me this 
morning thai the Canadians thai arc here arc eternally telling lies to the 
Indians, and tells me likewise thai tin 1 Interpreter and one La Pointe 
told the Indians a few days ago that we should all be Prisoners in a short 
time (showing them when the corn was about a foot high) that there was 
i Army lo come from the Mississippi; & that they were to have a 
greal number of Indians with them, therefor advised them not to help 
us; That they would soon take Detroit and these small Posts, and that 
then they would take Quebec, Montreal & Ca. and go into our country. 
This I am informed they tell them from one cud of the .year to the other, 
with a greal deal more thai I cannol remember. I am convinced that 
while they are permitted to trade here that the Indians here never will 
'"• in our Interest, for although our Merchants sells them a stroud for 
three Beaver, they will rather give six to a French man. It is needless 
inquiring into the affair as the French have so much influence over them, 
thai they will deny whai they said, for the oilier day I had the Express 
before me lor saying we should all be lighting by and by; but could 
make nothing of ii as the Indians were afraid to own it before him, altho 
the Indians thai heared them talk of it stood to it. I am, 
Yours, &c, 

FBOM RICHARD WINSTON, MERCHT AT ST JOSEPH'S TO 
Till- in ILI8H MERCHANTS AT DETROIT. DATED ST. JOSEPH, 19 JUNE. 1763.' 

'■'ii'leiiien: I address myself lo you all, not knowing who is alive or 
who is dead. I have only lo inform yon that by the Blessing of the 
Almighty, \ the help of Mr. Louison Chevalie [escaped being killed 
when this unfortunate Garrison was massacred. Mr. Hamback and me 

id "' "' House oi the si Ihevalie for four days and nights; Mr. 

Hamback is broughl bj the Savages to the Illinois, likewise Mr. Chin 
unfortunate ,„e remains here Captive with the Savages. I musl say thai 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 635 

I meet with no bad usage, however 1 would that I was with some Chris- 
tian or other, 1 am quite naked. & Mr. Castacrew who is indebted to Mr. 
Cole, would not give me an inch to save me from Death, who the day 
before the massacre here to pay me pari of said Debt, but since that 
denyd in the presnce of Mr. Chevalie, thai he owed me anything, untill 
I produced his note, he then said his note was no order to pay any part 
of said debt to me, I am informed thai Castacrew lias information that 
Mr. Cole was killed on his way from Niagara; I have nothing to say con- 
cerning our enemy here but that they recommend to the savages at 
Detroit to quiet their firing upon the Fort at Detroit, that as the Six- 
Nations began the War they might persist in it. We are informed that 
at Miamis Mr. Holmes and part of his Garrison were killed, the other 
part carried down the Wabash to joyu the Garrison of Ouitinon and car- 
ried all to the Illinois; At Ouitinon there was not one killed but all taken 
Prisoners. I am, &c. 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM EDMOND MORAN, MERCHANT AT FORT EDWARD AUGUS- 
TUS, TO MR. JOSEPH SPEAR AND COMPANY, MERCHANTS, 
AT DETROIT, DATED 16 MAY, 1763. 

Sir: The Indians would do very well hen' but for the Canadians; They 
spirit them up to everything thats bad against the English. I am sure 
that it will never be worth any English Traders while to follow this 
Trade unless the French are prohibited to come here. 

Yrs, &c. 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM LIEUT. EDWARD JENKINS TO MAJOR HENRY GLADWIN 
COMMANDING AT DETROIT. DATED OUITINON, 1 JUNE, 176H. 

Sir: I have beared of your situation which gives me much pain, indeed 
we are not a great deal better, for this morning the Indians seal for me 
to speak with me, & immediately bound me when I got to their cabbin. & 
I soon found some of my soldiers in the same situation. They told me 
Detroit, Miamis and all these Posts were cutt off, and thai it was a folly to 
make any resistance, therefor desired me to make the lew soldiers I had 
in the Fort surrender, otherwise they would put all of us to death in ease 
one man of theirs was killed. They were to have fallen on us and killed 
us all last Night, but Monsienrs Maisonville & Lorrain, gave them Wain 
pum not to kill us all, and when they told the Interpreter we were all to 
be killed & he knowing the Canadians of the Fori beged of them to make 
us Prisoners. They have put us into the French houses and both Indians 
and French use us very well. Ml these Nations say they are very sorry, 
that they were obliged to do it by the other Nations. The belt did not 
arrive here till last night about Fight o'clock: -Mr. Lorrain can inform 
you of all. Just now received the news of Si. Joseph's being taken, 



cs 

l have 

our, £ 

s on thorn that deserve it. 1 

&«■".. N. B. ^ e expect 

n LN TO 

E lit. 

Reg Ensign Perry of the Queen's Rangers, 

- uduskey informs the Court 

rated by his Sentry at the 

uted to speak to him. upon 

.1 finding them to be some of his 

udly, he permitted seven of them 

in a little tobaceoe to smoak; in a short time after 

. which he s . ses v - a signal, upon 

uoxt him seized and tied him. without saying a 

- Room; where he found his sentry Dead 

si of the Garrison one here and there all mas- 

■ led by Indians: His Sergeant who had been 

_ garden was killed there: who notwithstanding 

orders that in ease any Indians came to the Fort. 

ely come in: The Merchants were all killed 

ing they had plundered; from whence he was brought to the 

s lace, where he remained prisoner until 1 the third 

made his escape into the Fori. The Indians that he 

ir Hurons. and three Outawas who live near 

signS ss who commanded at Fort St. Josephs informs 

lat "U the :Joih day of May between !» & LO in the morning, 

quainted that tl - party of Detroit Putawatamia 

ir relations there, and who intended to come and wish 

w minutes after a Frenchman came and told him 

lians come with an ill design, upon which he run to 

- Hers under Anns, and upon entering found 

- upon which he ordered his Sergeant touseall his 

inder anus: while he assembled the French and imme- 

■ them, who were already assembled at his room, 

and in twoorthn . entered hehearda cry in theBar- 

se Indians that were in the room with him secured 

lV • without seised the sentry at the Gate, and rushed 



i 
i 

- 

- 

carry 

i 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

D BY ORDEB OF MUUH &LADWIN TO BNQUIEB 
nil ROIT.JULK 10, 1763. 

I [opkina, President. 

■i Douga 11 Ensign Jos. I. Schlosser of 60th Regiment Mem- 

_,, . i, ,| IM Christie who commanded at Presqu'isle informs the 
Court thai "ii i In- -i i -in in- ai daybreak in the morning ho found that Fort 
inded l>.\ aboul 200 Indians pari of tour nations; al a quarter of an 
In. in- after t In y began firing upon the Blockhouse and continued all 
smart ; they likewise shol lire arrows into the roof of the 
i:|u. Uh.iisi- by the enemy which se1 it several times on fire. The Block- 
In. use was situated on a rising groundj & could be approached at a little 
distance by two Hills, one ascending from the Lake Eastward, the other 
ding from the bottom or Creek Northward from these two places 
i In- Indians kepi their lire, having made holes in the earth at night to 
■ s, ii< >i \\ ii hstanding which, two or three of them endeav- 
oring to gel into the trench were killed, which made them abate their 
lire for some hours, al which time they were employed digging a passage 
through the Earth to gel at the body of the House: The 21st they com- 
menced firing as hoi as ever with fuses and arrows, which set the house 
: several places; the same Day the Barrels of Water he 
had pi ["gencies was spent in extinguishing the afore- 

Baid i: ading it impossible to gel a1 the Well that was sunk in 

the parade, was therefor obliged to sink one in the House by very hard 
i. while he was digging the well the House was set again on lire, 
l. ui gol ii extinguished by driving down the shingles from the roof: At 
time they had approached through the Earth as far as the Com- 
nianding Officer's room on the Parade, they set it on fire and communi- 
i to the Fasines around the Port; he continued firing 'till mid- 
night, when one of them who spoke French called up to him that it was 
in vain for him to pretend to hold out, for they could set lire to the Block- 
when ilny pleased, & if In- would not surrender they would burn 
and torture every man thai In- had; In- finding that they had made the 
approaches aforesaid, thai thej could set the house on tire above and 
in-low. ii,,- men being fatigued to the greatest extremity, & not able to 
extinguish Buch a tin- and resisl the enemy's numbers; lie asked them in 
English if there was any man amongsl them that understood that Ian- 
ln\ -aid 1 1,,-re w;is an Englishman now fighting against him who 
en their Prisoner seven years. Tiny then desired him to leave off 
.v In- should speak win, him. accordingly they told him that they 
'" llm "" Vlli "" :l1 Detroil thai had been compelled to take up 
' roil bj tin- Outawas, thai there was part of the other 
nations there with them, thai they only wanted the house & that they 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS, 639 

would have. They told him he mighl have liberty to go with his Gar- 
rison where lie pleased. He (hen desired them to leave off their firing 
and he would give them an answer in the morning, early: That seeing 
the vessel during the attack hovering aboul unable to assisl him >V con- 
sidering the situation he was in, & the impossibility of holding out any 
longer. He sent out two soldiers as if to treat with them that they might 
find out their disposition & how they had made their approaches, who were 
to give him a signal if they found what he imagined to he true, thai find- 
ing what he imagined to he so he then inarched mil with the Garrison in 
order to save them having their promise of liberty to go to Fort Tin. or 
where they pleased, but were no sooner out t han seised, bound & he with 
four soldiers and a woman carried to the Huron Village, where they were 
kept Prisoners untill the 9th instant that he, the woman and one soldier 
were delivered up. That Shelbarger the said Soldier of Capt. Hopkins 
Company of the Queen's Rangers being examined by the Court declares 
the same in every particular. 

JOS. EOPKINS. 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM CAPT. GEORGE ETHERINGTON TO MA.IOK HENRY GLADWIN 
COMMANDING AT DETROIT, DATEl) MICHILAMACKINAO 18 JULY, 1763. 

Dear Sir: The Expiess which I seat ell' to Lieut. Gorrell at Labay 
arrived very luckily one day before that Post was to have been cutt off. 
The Savages of that Tost came down the Indian Village where F was 
Prisoner. & brought with them Lieut. Gorrell and all his Garrison, and 
they with Mr. Lesley, me and fourteen men thai remained of the Garri 
son of this Place, are jusl embarking for Montreal under a guard of sixty 
savages of the Outawa Nation. 

I have a thousand things to tell you but T cannot trust them by this con- 
veyance, 1 have heard nothing of the four men thai I senl last Maj 
Josephs, there is two of my men yel with the Chippewas. 1 have pre- 
vailed with the savages to permit all the English merchants to carry all 
the goods to .Montreal under the convoy, 1 have been at a very greal 
expense here but it was all unavoidable. 1 don't despair of seeing you 
this Fall at Detroit & am, in the meantime Dear Sir-. Yours Sincerely, 

George Etherington. 

PROCEEDINGS OF A COURT OF ENQUIRY HELD BY ORDER OK MAJOR HENRY OLID 
WIN. COMMANDING AT DETROIT, 9TH AUGUST, 17«3. 

Captain Hopkins, President. 

Lieut. Williams, 17th Regt, Ensigns Anderson. 55th Regt, Members. 

Mr. Rutherford being sworn informs the Court, that the Night before 
Capt. Campble was put to Death. He was sleeping at Monsieur St. 
Remands house (who was always very civil to him) .v in the middle ot the 
night he was awakened by Francois Maloshe & two others whose names 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

he knows not. They took him in a Closet in said House produced him 

1 letters which had been senl from the Fori to Cap. Campble & 

obliged bim to read them in order (as they said) to know whether Peace 

■ iade with France or not; among the above mentioned letters this 
Di ponant found one from Lieut. M< Donald which mentioned that Peace. 
was declared in the Fori and read said letter to them; upon which 
thai peace was declared in the Fort; But they 
believed do where else Several of the above mentioned letters were 
Bealed w hen they were delivered to this Deponanl and others open, which 
Meloshe said w ere given to bim by Cap. Campble to be taken care of. 
I'pon the Death of Campble (the day following) this Deponant was sent 
for to explain (in full Council of French and Indians) the aforesaid let- 
He remembers the following persons thai were in the Council, viz., 
I'.aiist Campeau, Francois Meloshe, Batisl Meloshe, Sancho P. Obain, 
f.'tiiisuii Denter Indian Interpreter, Monsieurs Domelte, Pero Barth, 
likewise many others he does not know; Those above mentioned were 
very eager to find out anything to tell the Indians that they mi<iht not 
believe thai Peace was made with France. This Deponant further saith 
that Pero Barth told him that he did not believe that there was Peace; 
Bui that .Major Gladwin had made the Declaration himself to pacify the 
Indians. Francis Meloshe in the above mentioned Councill, upon read- 
ing the taws of Dr. Cuyless being attacked, said aloud let no man speak 
hi. they ate Dogs. Monsieur Denter has often told this Deponant 
that he would make his i scape to the Indians, for fear the Major would 
hang him. Pero Barth has told him the same. D was generally said 
among them thai if any of the French were hanged, it would be those 
that broughl Capt. Campble out of the Fori. This Deponant was used 
very illy by Monsr. La Tiard (al whose bouse this Deponant's Indian 
master had planted corn & his rabbin always there & was treated very 
we|| by P. I.a Tiard) After Lieut. McDougall had made his escape. Mr. 
Coulliere told this Deponant, that it was a pity he was saved, as the 
French would likely suffer thereby. Farther this Deponant saith not. 
I '.t toil 6 Aug. L7C3. 

.'it l'oulett says the nighl before Capt. Campble was killed he was 

ng '" Hi'- same room with Mr. Rutherford when Francis Maloshe 

awakened him ami took Rutherford into another Room where he heard 

oraetime whispering and rustling of papers. In the morning he 

wanted i,, know what the French had told him; But Rutherford told him 

Hey ha<l absolutely forbid him to mention it to him; Put on his promis- 

be told him the same as he has upon oath declared to the 

< 'ourt. 

Lieut. McDougall being sworn informs the Courl that the Day he and 
'"'I' 1 - Campble left the Fori to treal with the Indians for a Peace, they 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 641 

met with them at Monsieur Cuelleries House where they saw the Indians 
and French assembled in the largest room. .Monsieur Cuilliere seated 
in the middle with a laced hal and coat on, in which manner this Depo- 
nant had never seen him before, he kepi his seat & his hal on when ('apt. 
Campble entered & continued covered during the Congress: The Indiana 
had just finished eating some bread which said Cullierie had given them 
and on his giving them bread a second time, he again look pari of one of 
the Pieces and eat himself, the Indians Demanded the reason, to which 
he answered that it was to assure them, he gave them nothing thai was 
poisoned: This ("apt. Campble and another person (who he does not 
remember) interpreted to this Deponant. After some time Pondiac the 
Chief of the Indians addressed himself to the beforementioned Cuillierie 
telling him that he looked upon him as his Father come to life & as (he 
Commandant of Detroit until] the arrival of his Brother Monsieur 
Billeta; at which speech the said Cuilliere seemed much pleased; Then 
Pondiac turning addressed himself to Cap. Campble & this Deponant & 
told them that if they made a Peace it must he on the same terms that 
his Father Monsieur Billeta had made. viz.. to lav down their Arms and 
he escorted by a number of Savages, that he would appoint tor thai pur- 
pose to the first Inhabitants; hut he would not allow them to take either 
arms or baggage along: On which the aforesaid Cuilliere turned to this 
Deponant, took him by the hand and said my Friend this is my work 
(meaning the offered Terms). I thought they would have been much 
harder. Some Days after this Deponant and Capt. Campble were talk- 
ing to said Cuillierie, & heard him say to Capt. Campble that he was only 
sorry for him and Mr. Sterling, the Day the Indians met in Council to 
assassinate the Garrison. Some time after when the Vessel went lirst 
from Detroit for Niagara Pondiac detached five canoes with Indians to 
attack her in one of which a Potawatamie was killed, on which the others 
run off. The Day after Monsieur Cuillerie was in the Room with Cap. 
Campball this Deponant, Pondiac and his Chiefs. And on Pondiac's 
acquainting said Cuillerie what he had done & wha1 had happened. Cuil- 
lerie answered in a deriding manner; what was the us,' of live canoes, 
why not thirty-five canoes. This Capt. Campble interpreted to this 
Deponant. This Deponant further saith that the Son of Cuillerie was 
employed carrying messages to and from Pondiac, giving information 
against the few French who assistaed the Fort with provisions, and pre- 
judicing them against listening to the account of Peace. This Deponant 
says further that Young Cuillerie was one of the Party who when Pon- 
diac in Council proposed to the French to take up arms against the Fort, 
that accepted the Pelt and answered he eat the same bread & drank out 
of the same cup, & would lire out of the same gun. This Deponanl says 
before and after the orders which Major Clad win gave forbidding all 
81 



QLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

kind of communication with the Savages, Francis Meloshe continued a 
ni and open trade with th( selling them daily broad and 

Is; but was kind to him during his captivity. Further this 

I».-| ant saitli : 

Mr. Chapman Abraham being sworn informs the Court, that in coming 
up Detroil River, having put on sluuv at the place of Monsieur St. Lewis, 
he acquainted this Deponanl that the Fort was besieged by the Indians 
on, Sir Roberl Daviss and a greal many more English 
were killed, & thai thev intended to kill all the English that would come 
up Detroit River. This Deponant immediately told his men to go back 
with him; bul the before mentioned soldiers told his men if they returned 
that would be all killed, as the Indians were round the whole Lake and 
;ii Niagara, upon which they absolutely refused to return with him. In 

luence of which this Deponant put all his poods in said St. Lewis's 
who told him he could d<> his best to save them from the Indians; 
Then i his Deponanl asked him where he sin mid go to hide himself to save 
his life, lie and .Madam Esperame (who was present) answered him he 
should go to her home A: hide himself in her cellar; where he continued 
about ten minutes and then was told by said Madam Esperame to go out 
of the house; which he obeyed and in going out she perceived his watch 
chain & told him to give it to her that she was certain the Indians 
would kill him ; upon which this Deponant told her he would make her a 
present of it, if she would let him stay in the cellar to save him from the 
Indians, she answered he should stay no longer in the House; upon 

which he endeavored to pain the w Is; she followed him, demanding 

the watch a second time, which I again refused. By this time the 
Indians discovered him, took him prisoner and carried him to St. Lewis's 
house, where he found some of his goods were put in his canoe. This 
Deponanl says further that one ivio Barth told him that Major Gladwin 
was the occasion of this Indian War; That if Capt. Campble had com- 
manded this would not have happened; That the aforesaid Major would 
not give the Indians presents nor suffer their puns to be mended us Capt. 
Campble did; This Deponanl replied that perhaps it was the General's 
orders nol to do so, upon which he immediately said that the General did 
not order the Major to call them Hops. Hops & bid them go out of his 
l "" lM - This Deponanl one Day saw Batist Devuiere and a great many 
other Frenchmen going to a < 'ouncil with the Indians, he asked some of 

■■'•hat was the matter they would not tell him anything. This 

lily seen some of the Frenchmen trading with the 

Indians giving them bread, tobacco and fish for English Merchants 

,; N " ,: " """ Prisoners. That Piero & Hyacinth 

Reaume have traded with the Indians for his effects some of which he 

en worn I,.n said Hyacinth's Daughters since his arrival in the Fort. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCKIPTS. 643 

That Piero LaBute told him lie bouglil of his effects. That Madam La 
Jenness being indebted to Monsieur Labadie & knowing him to owe this 
Deponant upward of twelve hundred louis, asked him if he had occasion 
for a quarter of veal & she would send it to him & discount it. which 
was proposed to said Labadie, who absolutely refused it. This Depo- 
nant says further that Batist Devuiriere had boughl of his effects. 

Monsieur La Bute Indian Interpreter for the Patawatamies & < (utawas 
being sworn, informs the Court that the Day Cap. Campble and Lieut. 
McDougall met the Indians at Cuilleries house, that he was habited as 
Lieut. McDougall has informed the Court & that he kepi his hat on dur- 
ing the Council, and that the purport of Pondiac's tirst speech was to 
inform the French and Indians that he turned out the Commandant 
(meaning Major Gladwin) and desired them to look upon and regard Mon- 
sieur Cuillierie as their Father and Commander, after which the said 
Cuillierie regaled Pondiac and the other Savages with three or four 
Flaggons of wine and pieces of bread. This Deponant further affirms 
what Lieut. McDougall has informed the Court of iu regard to not poison- 
ing the bread; The Day following the said Cuillierie inquired how ('apt. 
Campble aud Lt. McDougall did, they answered very well; But his Depo- 
nant answered very ill, for that the Indians had stripped them of every- 
thing & during the whole night, is that all, says Cuillierie, thej are well 
off. I thought the Savages would have done much more. This Depo- 
nant further says that an Out; wa savage told him, that the aforesaid 
Cuillierie, spoke to Pondiac, the Indian Chief, in this manner, have you 
sent three or four canoes to attack the Vessel, it would have been Inner 
to have sent forty. He also says that the son of the above < luillierie was 
continually employed in giving and carrying intelligence to and from 
Pondiac. & that he (this Deponant) in Council, when Pondiac was alleg- 
ing things against the said it was not true, on which Pontiac 
without hesitation answered then he is pointing to Cuillierie's son, who 

answered, yes I did tell it This Deponant adds thai the Day 1' liac 

had assembled the old and young men of the settlement together, he 
demanded of them to assist in digging trenches against the fori. Cuil- 
lieries son with the other young men desired the old men to answer first 
and they would afterwards. The answer was delivered by Monsieur 
Mayerin Spokesman for the young men, to this effect, we will not only 
take Spades but it is also our desire to take up Arms. 



Till'. OLADWDJ MANUSCRIPTS. 

[E ILLINOIS in THE INDIANS AT DETROIT, BY THE 
I 01 BIER G0DFRE1 & c I1KNK. 

tccompatiied with a large Belt. 

I.ist.-n jo Frencb our Bretheren who are Prisoners as well as we. It is 
vexing thai the English whom we were willing to adopt as Bretheren, 

si Ill deceive so many nations. All thai the Delawares and Shawany's 

told us is now come to pass. Tiny told us lo lie diffident to the English, 
they only seek to deceive you & so ii happeneth. Without the assistance 
of tin- French Merchants who give us on (rust some trifles we had 
received to buy whal we stood in need of in the Fall we were undone 

sine if Father, Mr. Billetre went away; we have no news, none but the 

English receive letters. Is it possible thai our Father writeth not? No 
Frenchman receiveth letters. This is to let our Father at the Illinois 
know our situation and request of him to inform us what is going on, 
that we may know if we are abandoned. The English tell us incessantly 
What ye Indians dare ye speak, see what we have done; We have your 
Father ami the Spaniards; We are masters of these lands and of all 
which belonged to your Father, for we have beal him & we possess all 
these countrys even to the Illinois except a small spot which is but 
trifling. Tin- Delawares told us this Spring, that the English sought to 
of all, and « null] i mi t us to Death, they told us also "Our 
Bretheren let us Die together, seeing the Design of the English is to cutt 
we are Dead one way or another. When we saw this, we decided 
all i In- Nations who are thy Children, to range themselves here at Detroit 
which they have done. We pray our Father at the Illinois to hasten to 

come t • succour, that he may have pity on us, notwithstanding that 

tin' English tell us constantly "From whom will ye get what ye stand in 
mid of? When our Father. .Mr. Belletre was going off from hence he 
told us "My Children the English to Day overthrow Your Father; as 
a they have the upper hand ye will not have what ye stand in need 
of; hut this will not last." We pray our Father at Die Illinois to take 
pity on us ami say ■•Tins,- p,,or children who are willing to raise me up. 
Why do we that which we are doing to day? It is because we are unwill- 
ing that tho English should p 5e lands, this is what causeth thy 
Children to rise and strike everywhere. 

Wo pray th.e, our Father, send us an answer speedily, by these Cour- 

■ II us thy thoughl & thy will; We will put in thy hands him who 

''■"»' uence; there will he no hurt done unto him, we will say 

""' ""•*■ '"• '"■'•'- '"• is- N o beg of thee, also, our Father to treat 

kindly our Couriers. We are the cause of the fatigue which they are 
going to un.]. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. H45 

Speech of the Chippewas, accompanied with a small Belt. 

We approve of the Outawas Speech & have not forgotteD our Father. 
We call to mind what our Ancestors told us. That it' our Father was 
overthrown our lands would be taken from us. We knew the intention 
of these people that crawl over our lands; this is what engages us to do 
what we do. We still keep hold of our Tat hers hands, and do what Ijeth 
in our power to draw it unto us. if we possess it we shall never let it go. 



COPY OF A LETTER SENT BY THE INHABITANTS OF DETROIT, DIRECTED TO THE 
GENTLEMEN COMMANDANTS AT THE ILLINOIS. 

Gentlemen: We are obliged to submit to what the Indians exact from 
us; The English are blocked up, and all the passages are shut up; We 
cannot express to you the our perplexity. It would be necessary, in 
order to judge of the calamaties which threaten us and which appear to 
us inevitable, that you saw with your own eyes what is going on here. 
God alone can prevent our becoming the victims of the English and 
Savages. These Couriers bear to you the talks of the Nations here; We 
look upon it as a happiness to have it in our power to acquaint you of 
our deplorable situation. We certainly never have contributed therein 
by our conduct; The English on their part never gave us occasion. 
Instruct us what we can do; We look upon you as Protectors and Media 
tors who would be willing to employ themselves efficaciously to pacify 
two contending partys who threaten us with an unexemplarj Desolation. 



A COURT OF INQUIRY HELD BY ORDER OF MAJOR HENRY GLADWIN, COMMANDANT OF 
DETROIT, S SEPTEMBER, 1763. 

Capt. James Grant, 50th Regt, President. 

Lieut. James P.ain, Queens Independence, Ensign Robert Anderson, 
55th Regt Members. 

Andreas Trueax an Inhabitant of Schenectady being examined; declares 
that sometime after he had been taken Prisoner by the Indians and car- 
ried to their Camp, he met with a Frenchman at the house of one Rofci- 
uate, to whom he told in course of conversation, & in the Indian tongue 
that he was glad to hear of the Indians that they said it was peace, & 
that he Trueax had told them it was so, upon which the Frenchman 
answered in a very angry tone that it was not so, that there was war at 
the Illinois, at Quebec and everywhere, pointing with his arm stretched 
to all parts, and that there was also aFrench fleet at Quebec; The French- 
man's name he does not know, but he is a short thick squatt fellow, a sil 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

ith (he him.-.li Baid) by trade. Thai afterwards he Trueax had 
I thai aboul the beginning of the troubles a1 Detroit, this French- 
man |,ad deserted the Fort where be formerly lived and is certain he 

returned thither whilsl be was a prisoner. Mr. Trueax further 

; ,;ii he had told the above Mr. Fisher, his fellow prisoner, who he 

I nchman's name. 

Mr. Fisher who was a Prisoner with the Indians aclcnowledges to have 

tin- above Declaration told him by Mr. Trueax, & says the Frenchman's 

name is Barl and was a silver and gun smith in the Fort. The above Mr. 

declares thai a day or two after be had been brought to the Indian 
Camp, he saw the above mentioned Barl the Frenchman in the Indian 
Cabbin he was broughl to & on his telling the English that it was cer- 
tainly Peace between the English and the French, 1 his same Bart made 
answer, directing his discourse in answering contemptuous tone to the 
Indians saying it was a Lye, thai it would no1 be Peace, why should it be 
Booner in Albany than a1 the Mississippi, that he Mr. Fisher told it was 
certainly Peace, and related to him as far of the Articles of Peace as he 
could then recoiled : bul Bart still insisted that it could not be, and that 
everything he Mr. Fisher had said to convince the Indians was false. 
The Indians then asked of Bart whether he had left the Fort or not, to 
which be answered laughing, left the Fort, I haw left it long ago. Mr. 
i further declares thai sometime after, the sloop was seen under 
sail up the River, thai he saw the same Barl upon the top of a house, who 
upon Ins observing the sloop steering towards the Indian Camp he 
beared him call to the Indians, down with your Hutts, down with your 
Huns Bend off your squaws and children to the woods. Mr. Fisher also 
declares thai the morning Capt. Dalyell had gone with his party, the 
squaws in his hutt told him, thai Barl was through their Camp with his 
■ thai he heared him calling out, go to the woods, knowing his voice 
perfectly well. Mr. Fisher says further the same day he went with his 
Indian Father up to Cross Point, who invited him in to do his Commands 
and gel Bome victuals, thai they went to the house of a Frenchman whose 
name he does uol Know, but that he is a little squatt man with black 
curled hair & squints a little, with whom the Indian had some talk, he 
couldnol well hear as they spoke low. hut on their coming away he heared 
the Frenchman above described say to the Indian, taking him at the 

time by the hand, Brother do your best againts the Fort, which he 

stly repeated, to which the Indian replyed in their manner, yes. Mr. 

fisher fun her says thai when the Indians were making a Eaft to sett 

the Vessels on lire, he .old them mat it was to no purpose that the En- 

l.sh WOUld haul then, oil before they reached the vessel, that then a well 

d ploasanl looking Frenchman & tall came up to him and said in 

' <■ 01 the Indians in their own language, that if there was ten well 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 647 

tied together, with ropes, they would do, gel across the vessel and cer- 
tainly set her on fire, and at the same time directing the Indians, showing 
them how the Outawas made their rafts; which were then finished a 
little lower down: and waiting for the Chippewas, sending down theirs. 
This Frenchman Mr. Fisher says lives on the other side of the Creek in 
which the Outawas made (heir rafts, and is said by Isaac Trueax and 
Gerrit Teller to be one Miloss. Mr. Fisher further says that soon after 
the attack of Capt. Dalyell he was with his Indian Father at the Bouse 
of one Cardinal, the son of the old Cardinal. & beared him tell his Father 
and many other Indians with a tone full of ectasy & joy that the English 
had in that affair many killed and wounded, that they were lying here 
and there Dead in the Fields and that a Woman who had been in the 
Fort, of whom the Major had asked news regarding that affair, told him; 
she said there was but few Indians, that the Cardinal said to the Indians. 
that was true, for had you been all there few of them would escape, tell- 
ing them at the same time that the Major had said that he would whip 
them all like beasts out of the ground with a horse whip. At which 
expression the Indians laughed very much, as if disdaining all threats. 

Mr. Fisher further says that he was one day with his Indian father in 
a Frenchman's house, where there had been several Indians and one 
Gabriel a Frenchman, who lives where the Outawas encamped the time 
Capt. Dalyell made his attack, that he heard the said Gabriel & the 
Indians talk about having sent to the Fort for pipes. & the Indians toll- 
ing him Gabriel that the Commanding officer had sent them word he 
knew not of their pipes, nor had he any, upon which this Gabriel got up 
and gave the Indian hoop or holloe, saying he was a man. & that he never 
threw away or lost a pipe, the Indians then answering the hoop, he 
Gabriel went out. 

Andreas Trueax and Mr. Fisher both say that the same Gabriel had 
told them, that when the French and Indians had spoke at any time to 
the Major, he called them Hogs and other names, telling them to gett 
along and go about their business & would not hear them. Mr. Fisher 
further declares that one Tom, a servant of Mr. Knaggs's, who was 
prisoner at the same lime told him. Mr. Andreas and Mr. Isaac Trueax, 
that one evening Mr. John Seeger, a partner of Mr. Knaggs's had go1 
Wabacumaga the Indian Chief of the Messisagar Nation with him at 
Toronto and that Mr. Seeger who is now Prisoner told him at that time. 
Wabacumaga told him Seeger that St. Luke LeOorn had sent him a 
large belt to make war upon the English, which belt he kicked from him 
saying he would have nothing lo do with it, that he would not tight 
against the English, for they were Masters of all, & that the above Chief 
had told Seeger who spoke the language well not to be afraid, that he or 
his partner should not be hurt, whilst he was about here. They do not 



648 THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

the time the bell was sent, bul Knaggsand Seeger were at Toronto 
from the Spring L762. Mr. Fisher further says that one Notawas, an 
lian bad told bim and both the above Trueax's, that there had 
i„, „ ninny Helta and Hatchets senl them these two years past, but that 
they the < mtawas would no1 ai • ep1 of any until! a large fine Belt came 
this last winter or Lasl Spring, the Outawas said from the Six Nations. 
I'.n! Mr. Fisher and botli of the Trueax's arc of opinion that the large fine 
belt was the Bame offered to the Messesagas Chief by St. Luke LeCorn. 

Manning Fisher. 

Messrs. Andreas & Isaac Trueaxs acknowledges to have been present 
when Tom, Mr. Knagg's servant, had told Mr. Fisher what Mr. Seeger 
told li i in in regard to the Bell sent by St. Luke LeCorn as also at the Con- 
versations between Mr. Fisher & the Outawa Indian and confirm the 
same, and thai this Outawa Indian had told them the above in the Six 
Nation language having confidence in them, saying he had not fought 
himself, and when the War was over he would not live amongst his 
Nation, but would go down to Alban}*. 

Isaac Trueax a Schenectady Inhabitant, declares thai some time after 
lie was broughl to the Indian < lamp, he was standing upon the Road with 
some other Prisoners, one < leorge and one Bolton, Soldiers in the Royal 
Americans, thai at that time Bart, the silversmith and Gunsmith, men- 
lioned in Mr. Andreas Trueax's and Mr. Fishers Declarations, came to 
them and being in middle of Indian ( lamp, spoke to them very loud in the 
Indian Tongue and told them as a piece of news that there were some 
- arrived just then from Montreal, which brought letters that it 
was no Peace, and thai there was fighting everywhere upon Sea and 
Land jus i as before, which news the Indians must have beared, as there 
were numbers aboul there, who showed all the marks of joy, on the 

on; lb- further says thai s ■ time after, he me1 one Lassell; who 

told him hewas comefrom Montreal at that time, and had seen the traders 
murdered at Grand Riviere. Isaac Trueax further declares that one 
Mitchell, an inhabitant a1 Gross Point, told him there is a young man in 

'■ settlement, « ho had been amongsl all the other young people of the 
settlement, with bells inciting them to take arms and assist the Indians 
iking ih.- Fort, desiring that they would form themselves into a 
''"'iipatn of which he was to be Captain. Isaac Trueax, Andreas Trueax, 
'I'm i, ball. & Teller all cotemporary Prisoners knew the above 
mentioned Voting Man Personally from manj instances of bis ill treat- 
""" , : ""' barbai Prisoners, and thai Mr. Mitch, -11 knows his 

'•"'"•' ,1,e > liav 'ng forg -., it. Isaac Trueax further declares, thai Mr. 

Mitchell also told him there was another Young Man on the South side 
of the River exciting the People on thai side in the same manner and to 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 619 

the same purpose, whose name Mitchell mIso knows. Isaac Trueax fur- 
ther declares that from the time the goods taken from him and the other 
Traders cam.- to tie- Indian Camp ii was a publick markel between the 
French and Indians 'lill all was seld. and that MelOBS who lives on the 
further side, of the Creels from the Fort, came to him in particular and 
told him that he boughl Dollars of the Indians and gave the value of a 
l'.ea\ er for each dollar, that he also showed him his own Watch which he 
had got, and asked him if it was good. Ele further says thai he ami his 
partner had brought up with them a thousand Dollars which he saw dis- 
posed of to the French, who were there in crowds whilst (he sale lasted, 
both men and women so many, that he could not possibly make any fur 

ther distinction. 

Isaac Tbbeax. 

Andreas Trueax says thai lie had taken from him one hundred and 
fifty dollars which were also boughl np by the French. 

Gerrit Teller a Schenectady Inhabitant declares that soon after he was 
brought to the Indian Cam]! a Prisoner, he spoke to one Niganuay a 
Chippewa Chief, the Father in-T. aw of DeConagne the Interpreter at Nia- 
gara, and asked him if he thought we should soon have Peace, to which 
he answered not torn long while, and asked him Teller if he knew (when 
he left Niagara) that the Indians were lighting against the English, he 
answered he did not. The Indian Chief then said. No that none of the 
English or their Traders know of it ; but that all of the French and a few 
of the Indian Chiefs knew of it. Gerrit Teller Further says that one 
Sunday in the afternoon the armed boats were sent up the River, he saw 
Mart, the silver and gunsmith mentioned in the Declarations of Mr. 
Andreas, Trueax and Mr. Fisher, run very fast up into the Indian Camp, 
and calling to the Indians that tin- English were coming np again, upon 

which the Indians took all to their Anns. 

Gakrit Teller. 

Andreas Trueax being again examined says that Mitchel's wife at 
Gross Point told him that she was told by a Frenchman the names of 
four of the first people in this Colonj who were principals at the head of 

all the mischief done here. 

Andreas iRUEAX. 

The above persons. Andreas Trueax. Manning Fisher, Isaac Trueax. 
and Garrit Teller, Declare they are willing at any time to make affidavil 
of what they have said, through the curse of this examination. James 
Grant, President. 

James Conner soldier in the 60th Regiment, who was I'ns, r with 

the Indians, says that Charles Dusette had threatened to kill hm,. A: 
132 



GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

thai he had foughl againsl Capt. Dalyell on the 31st July and has Sr 

i;,,l„ : Rifle and the Powder Horn and Point of Cap. Robinson. 

is the Person hinted in Mr. Trueax's evidence to have 

Belts to the young men of the settlement and treated the Prisoners 

bo ill. 



1 COURT OF INQUIRY BELD AT DETROIT, OCTOBER 1, 1763. 

Capt. .lames Grant, 60th Regt, President. 

Lieut. Bain of the Queens Rangers Ensign Anderson of the 55th Regt, 
Members. 

John Beverings soldier in the 60th Regiment being taken Prisoner by 
the Savages in May last by the Chippewas and brought down to the 
Outawa Camp mar Melosshes House, says that during the time of his 
imprisonment he was made to work by the Savages at the Rafts with 
which they intended to fire Hie Vessels, he saw two Frenchmen, the two 
Melosshes, assist the Savages not only in constructing said Rafts but 
had given them augres, axes and other implements fit for that purpose. 
That he was in some time broughl to the South Side of the River to a 
Frenchman's house with whom he was made to work. That the French- 
man paiil the Savages half a bushel of wheat for every four days work 
renchman's name he knows not) but knows his ITouse that be had 
-.iu some Indians come to the House demanding a cow to kill, that the 
Woman of the Bouse asked them for Pondiac's order, which they said in 

Indian, Panama, signifying s< , that he had frequently seen billets or 

orders from Pondiac to several French for what the Savages might want, 
which was always readily granted, thai he heard the woman of the same 

1 sesay when the Indians are gone thai Montreal was to pay half their 

loss by the Indians, .lames Conner soldier in the 60th Regiment being 

taken Prisoner at the same time with the above, was brought to Jacoe 

bergs an inhabitant's house who boughl him, that soon after he 

oughl Pondiac the Indian Chief came and desired Sr. Aubergh to 

him to work at the Rafts then making to sett fire to the Vessels, 

which the Frenchman obeyed and sent him and his own son with a horse 

and ear. to ,!,,,„■ timber lor the Rafts, that the same day he saw St. 

sma" Bullock to the Indians which they slaughtered 

■ his door; thai one -lay one Piero Bar1 came to St. Auberghs house 

and asked him the Prisoner what he thought of the war. will the Fort be 

« kt>n - "' which I,,- cry'd no. That Hart said it would in two days, & 

ul< '"' wou,d b »y ""• ^o - s's gunsmiths from the Indians;' that 

'' ll: "' ;ii "mother time told hit,, that the soldiers it. the Garrison were 

, Dt " red '" :l Conspiracy, and i er the silence of the Nighl intended to 

over the Pickets and abandon the Fort, and after they had got out 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 651 

wore to be conducted to Pondiac's camp by one Rhenbeaux, an Inhabi- 
tant in the Fort, desiring liini al the same time ool to speak of it to any 
of the English prisoners (This Conversation with Barl was in English) 
that he knew Mavark. St. Aubergh, Maihias Meloshe, & Brother to have 
been constantly at the Indian Councills, whilst he was a Prisoner, that 
his Master St. Auberg had told him, these Councills were held to gel 
them to take up Anns against the English, which they refused, but thai 
two Frenchman had taken up arms, one Charloc Dusette, the other name 
he does not know. That lie knows Ids Master St. Auberg to have tilled 
about ten acres of ground, which he bad given to tour differenl families 
of Indians to plant corn in, that he had often seen his master feed the 
Indians and knows him to have bought from them differenl sorts of 
goods plundered and taken from the English. 

his 
James X Conner. 
Mark. 

Thomas Meares soldier in the GOth Regiment beingtaken prisoner by the 
Savages at Presqtf isle the 22d June last says that he was brought from 
thence to the Indian Camp at Detroit where he saw ('apt. Campble & Lt. 
McDougall Prisoners, that soon after Lieut. McDougall having made his 
escape he was carried to see (.'apt. Campble put to Death in a most bar- 
barous and inhuman manner, and expecting the same to be bis Fate as 
soon as they had done mangling the body of ('apt. Campble, he implored 
the mercy of the man in whose house Capt. Campble & Lt. .McDougall 
were whilst Prisoners, who answered no. were you my own Prisoner I 
would give you to the Indians, as you are an Englishman, for the Indians 
and we are all one, clapping of his baud to his heart, and proceeded in 
saying whilst lie had anything they should not want, that on their return 
from the place of Execution lie beared the same Landlord of Lt. .McDou- 
gall tell many things of him to the Indians which occasioned their being 
very cruel and ill natured to him for a long time after. That he had been 
soon after Capt. Campble's Death brought to an Indian Village on the 
way to St. Josephs about four days march, in which Village he saw three 
Frenchmen (whose names he does not know but well know their Faces 
and their houses having been there sometime) come the day after ('apt. 
DalyelPs Defeat in great baste, and beared them tell the Indians there, 
seemingly in the greatest joy, how the English were beat & had great 
uumbers killed, showing how they were brought in complaining of their 
wounds & many other demonstrations of joy. That there is a French 
man who lives below the Huron Milage. & to his knowledge had given a 
cornfield to three Families of the Outawa Indians, as well as his Horses 
to carry the corn for them to the Riverside, when pulled die also knows 
the man's face and house). That he also knows of St. Auberg having 



TEE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

given a Field of ten acres well till'd to the savages, and that be himself 
\s.i> made to work at the pulling of it, thai lie also knows the said St. 
Auberg Laving often run into the Indian Camp where he bad been kept 
with intelligence when the English came out of their Fort with their 
UoatB or otherwise. Thai ho had often heared many of the Inhabitants 
spirit i a i > the Indians l>.\ telling them that the English Garrison were 
living upon two ounces of Flour pr day, and no Pork, nor was there any 
at Niagara to bo senl to them, that he knows also the houses of several 
Inhabitants in which the English plunder is deposited and preserved for 
t!i>- Savages, which he ran show at any opportunity. 

Thus. Meares. 

i in..- soldiers, John Severings, .lames Conner & Thomas Meares, 
are ready to make affidavit to what they have declared in the Course of 
t In- aho\ o examination. 

James Grant, President. 
James Bain, 
Eob't Anderson. 

Detroit 12 October, 1763. 

CNQl U\\ HELD in OEDEB or MAJOR GLADWIN, ENG. COMMANDANT. 

Captain Robert Rogers, President. 

Hai 60th Regt. (Members) Ensign Perry, Q. E. A. Rangers. 
l.\ idence of John Seger, « ho was taken Prisoner at the Grand River in 
coming here, says that since he has boon a Captive lie has often heared 
the Indians say, in talking amongsl themselves, that they were surprised 
he French did not keep their words with them that they had pro- 
they should in .i want for Provisions or Ammunition in case they 
should begin & continue the war with the English, & how would it be by 
and by if t hoy began to draw back already. He further says that he 
was last Winter at Toronto a trading when he was told by Wapauma- 
&<?n a Chief of tin- Missisagys thai St. Luke he Corn; had sent Belts to the 
Several Nations this Way.as he termed it tindery,, -round, which moved 
about last winter, the purport of which was to desire them to continue 
still in their friendship to the French, who would come in a Fleet in the 
Spring* take the Country again. Heat the same time told him that the 
Indians would be a. War with us in the Spring. That he was told by an 
Indian Chief in the Mohawk Tongue in Mr. Massack's House, in presence 

of many others that three Belts had I n going about from the French 

three years pasl exhorting the Indians to take up Arms against 

II- also says that as soon as there is any alarm amongst the Indians 

tuej carried their goods in the French houses by way of security that he 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 653 

saw six pieces of si raw iii Massacks, which he believed to be pari of what 
was taken from him at Grand River. The said Seger is willing to take 
his oath that the said evidence is (rue whenever he shall lie called upon, 
and that Several Prisoners had shown him a Frenchman who spoke a 
little English, and whom he will knew when he sees him, thai always 
came to fire against (he Fori with the Indians. The above Seger recol- 
lects that he was told by the Chippewas that the first canoe thai went 
from here iu the Spring to Montreal went on purpose to bring ammuni- 
tion for them. 

John Packs soldier, who was taken Prisoner coming from Michili- 
mackinac in the Spring says that Charlo Dusette told him that he and 
Piero Earth had received two Belts of Wampum from the Indians as 
Commanders to raise the French in Arms to take the Vessels, they were 
to have had a man from each family, but they would not go with them 
though they warned them. That the French Guard the most valuable 
of their goods that in case we should drive them ell' they can come back 
and get them. The above Packs is willing to be qualified to the above 
evidence whenver he shall be called upon. True Copy. 

Eobekt Rogers. 



LETTERS FROM M. NEYEON, COMMANDANT AT THE ILLINOIS. 

To all my Children: The Iroquois, or Six Nations, Abenakies, Shawms, 
Ottawas, Chippewas, Hurons, Pautewatamies, Shiraponts, Macoutins, 
Miamis, Ouiejalanaws, Peanquickias, Ilinois, Sakeys, Poxes. Folcavoines, 
Ozages, Kanses, Missouris, Panis, and to all Red Men. 

My Dear Children, as none of you can reproach me of lying. I promised 
you to communicate to you the news, and you to listen to my speech. 
lo! here it is. My dear Children, open your ears that it may penetrate 
.■ven to the bottom of your Hearts. The great day has come at last 
wherein it has pleased the Master of Life to inspire the Greal King of 
the French, and him of the English to make IV;,,,. between them, sorry 
to see the blood of men spilled so long, it is for this reason they have 
ordered all their Chiefs and Warriors to lay down their arms and we to 
acquaint you of this news, to engage you to bury the hatchet, doing it 
as I hope, what joy you will have in seeing the French and English 

smoke with the same pipe and eating out of the same S] n and finally 

living like Bretheren. You will see the Road free, the Lakes and Rivers 
unstopped. Ammunitions and Merchandise will abound in your \ il- 
lages- Your women and children will be cloaked as well as you. they 
will go to the dances and Festivals not with cumbersome & heavy clothes, 
bu1 with skirts, blankets and Ribbands, forgel then, mj dear children, all 
the evil talcks, mav the wind carry off like dust all those which have pro 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS 

,1 ouf evil mouths. The Respeel and Friendship which yon have 
iiIwuvh lind for the Word of Onondiijo and for mine in particular makes 
me believe thai you will listen to (his one now: Ii is from a Father who 
. i, nderlj his Children and who seeks nothing but your welfare. 

The French are free even as you, they change the Land when the King 
orders it, he has no1 given yours, he has only ceded those which he had 
amongsl you in order to avoid War for the future and that ye may always 
enjoy tranquility and have abundance of merchandise in your Villages. 
I depend upon you thai you will not make me lie, and that your Young 
Men will nol quil their Rattles or play things to take up the Hatchet, 
hut to carry it amongsl Savage Nations from whom you expect no suc- 
cours and who are on the Earth to Embroil it. Leave off then my Dear 
Children from spilling the Mood of your Bretheren the English, our 
are aovt bul one, you cannol a1 present si rike the one without hav- 
ing the other for enemy ;ilso, if vim continue you will have no supplys, 
and is from us thai you exped them, you will be always in my heart, 
and in i hose of the French who will never abandon you. 

I bid you all farewell and recommend you to respect always the French 
who remain amongsl you, altho 1 expect to go off sometime after the 
Couriers which 1 dispatch to you, send me your answer by them. If I 
do nol receive it here it will be at New Orleans where I will concert with 
the j real chief, the means for supplying you. thus having all the other 
Bide of the River Mississippi where the French will supply the wants of 
those « ho will be iii this quarter. 

I pray the Master of Life to enter into your hearts & that he may make 
you Know thai in following the advice which I give you to make Peace 
with our Bretheren the English, you may never stand in need of being 
pitied, and Bnallj thai the King, I and all the French will be glad to see 
• in Peace, and for proof of the truth of what I tell you, I sign 
Presents with my hand and pu1 thereto the seal of my arms at Fort 
Chartre 27 Sept. L763. 

Signed, J. Neyeon DeVilliebe, 

Fort Chartre (it the Illinois, 27th Oct., 1763. 
Gentlemen: It is well decided thai the King of France, (he King of 
'Mud and he of Spain (undoubtedly affected with the horrors of such 

; ""' ' • war ) h avea1 length made Peace, whereof the Definite 

I whanged the l.h of .March last. I, [ 8 by virtue of a letter 

will, the King's Seal thai Governour by his dispatches bearing date 

I. ol last Ju y (and which I received the21s1 past) gives me orders 

,ud « hv er up this Peace to theC aissaries of his Brittannick Majesty 

' ""powered bj Ins orders for the purpose .V evacuate it. 1 do not enter 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 655 

into a Detail of this Cession; it is conformable to the articles in the Parlia- 
mentaries concerning this Quarter, and which you have seen, which 
leaves the Inhabitants free and at liberty to retire whereever it seemeth 
good unto them within the possessions of the Three Kings; he has then 
ordered me to acquaint all those who are willing to withdraw themselves 
hereof, & to propose to them New Orleans, the Allemants, Lapointe, 
Loupde, Anhancas and Saute Gunnviene, to establish themselves there 
with assurance of having all facility in their new settlements. It' any 
amongst you gentlemen choose to follow this resolution, they are free 
to do it and may assure themselves that I will procure them every suc- 
cour that will depend on me. It remains then. Gentlemen, thai I exhort 
you agreeable to the Kings intention to put everything in practice to con- 
tribute to the Peace which I demand of the Indians, being \\ ell persuaded 
that the English Gentlemen will take the most just means to accomplish 
it in consequence whereof I have dispatched these Couriers and am 
entirely. Gentlemen, Your very humble & Must Obt. Servt. 

(Signed) Neyeon DeVilliebe. 

To all the Inhabitants at Detroit. 

We Peter Joseph Neyon DeVilliere Major Commandant of the Illinois: 

Mr. Dequindre, Cadet, is ordered to set out this day with one named 
•lames la Devarette and two Indians to go to Detroit to carry our l»is 
patches thither. 

He will be charged, moreover, with a parole from us in writing with a 
flying seal, three Belts and four pipes for all the Xations. 

As the Ouyatanons are the first that he will find, he will cause their 
Chiefs to be assembled, together, to whom he will explain exactly our 
Parole in assuring them of the Peace, in token whereof, he will deliver 
up to them one Belt and one Pipe. 

He will do the same with the Kekapouts, Maskoukins, & Miamis, and 
from thence he will go to Detroit, when he will deliver our letters to the 
Commandant. 

If contrary to our intentions the siege of Detroit by the Indians should 
obstruct his entering into the Fort, he is to go to Pondiac, Chief of Outa- 
was, where he will read over our Parole and give it up to them, enjoyning 
them to convey it to all the other Nations. 

He will be on his Guard in order to avoid all manner of surprises from 
ill conditioned Indians. 

We command to hint most expressly to make all dispatch. We desire. 
therefor, all whom it may concern not to retard him bui on the contrary 
to procure him succour and assistance. Given at Fort Chart re. L'T Sept. 
1 763. 

Signed, Neyon Vii.uere. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 



TIIK DB LA RATION 01 MB JADOG TO MAJOR GLADWIN AND I W'T. 8EANT AT MAJOR 
ULIDWIN'S B0D8E, THE -4 1 il DEC, 1763, IN THE EVENING. 

h thai in council with Pondiac composed of the following principal 
Inhabitants, viz., N'avarre Schcott, Campeau, Currie, and Frank Meloss, 

timeal i the latter end of June or beginning of July, 1763 Schcott 

told Pondiac thai thei would no1 fighl with him against the English, as 
they would expose their wives and children to inevitable ruin, should 
they no1 succeed, bul thai there were aboul three hundred young men in 
the settlemenl who had neither Parents or much property to lose, that 
mighl and oughl to join him, in consequence of which speech Pondiac 
addressed himself to some Young Men present, who immediately agreed 
to join him and 6gh1 against the English. Kenbarger told him of this 
Council and thai Frank Meloss had insisted in said Council that Mr. 
Nevarre being a knowing & leading man would tell assure Pondiac that 
they were all readj and willing to take up arms with him against the 

sb, which Nevarre absolutely refused, & said no I will not tell him, 
tell it him yourself. Thai on Jadocs hearing the result of this Council 
he came to Pero Potie, the Jesuil and prevailed upon him to come to the 
Fori and acquainl the Commandanl of what passed, but as the Jesuit 
was ready to sell out, Piero La Bute & Baptist Gruereme came and find- 
ing he was going to the Fort told him he was mad, that Pondiac would 
hum his church, destroy all he had and then kill himself, which fright- 
ened him and prevented his going and acquainl the Commandant that it 
was agreed upon in Council a hunt the 5th day of duly, that the Garrison 
was in be at nuked without by the Savages and French, and within by 
the Freneh Inhabitants residing in the Fort. N. 1!. This corresponds 
with three large Keys being found in the Fort, which answered in every 
ivspecl the locks of the Fori & with the Deposition of McConie, a soldier 
n the 60th Regiment, who had at thai time been Prisoner, and told by a 

fellow Prisoner, who spoke g 1 French thai the Harrison were all to be 

murdered, as the French wire all to attack it from without and within, 
i- well as the savages, or to this purpose. Jadoc further saith that at 
Piero Labutes House he told Pondiac of the Peace, and putting three of 
'" ''"'- liowing as the three great Kings had now made Peace, 

thai in aim, -kin- the English ii was attacking the whole three & many 
oilier arguments to prevail on the Savage Chief to listen to reason which 
ittle time seemed inclined to giving greal attention; But the 

nbute in a rage told him Pondiac it was all a lie, propogated by the 
Knglish to deceive them, and thai Jadoc himself was no other than an 

Bbman. He further saith that all the St. Obaignes & Campeaus 

nn ' ""' """-' l»'ominen1 | pie in the settlement, and by them proposed 

'" make trenches, thai whe i aemy were close on the outside the 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 657 

Garrison was to be attacked within. Thai Ban the gunsmith and Ship- 

paton, two Inhabitants of the For, had often gone out an g8< the Sav- 

ages and told everywhere thai the English in the Fort were half Dead 
and that a good savage cry would make thorn surrender; Further .hat 
Currie, Sckieott, Meny Chene, Godfrey and others knew of the Plan to 
murder the Garrison in Council several days before it was attempted to 
be put into execution; and thai by the requests of Curie, Campeau and 
son,,, others Capt. Campbell was to l,o saved. That Pierro La Bute bad 
told Jadoc that Currie had also desired of Pondiac to sav,. Cap1 Hop 
Inns that he was as one of them, which he promised to do if ho knew him 
Further that Baptist Campeau ram,, to his Jadocs house showed him 
some letters & a Kelt which were to he se n1 to the Illinois by Godfrey 
and Meny Chene, which on reading surprised him so much thai In- asked 
said Campeau if he showed them to the Commandanl ; that he answered 
with equal surprise, what Commandant, we have no other Commandanl 
now but Pondiac & nexl Sunday you'll go to the Mass in the Fort, and 
you'll see no English there, we will take it eer that time. Jadoc then 
replied, how will you take it. We will take it by sapp replied Campeau, 
further that Tiffoc, who came in the Fall from the Illinois and positively 
declared to all the Savages there was no Peace that it was all a lie & 
there would he an army soon from the Illinois with ammunition enough; 
he lodges and resides at old Predomes House. That LeVille Beau, Char- 
toe Campeau and old Predome particularly harboured and fed the sav- 
ages in the times of want. Further that outside Rentaigne, Cab 
barcher, St. Andrew and St. Bernard are all good men, but that, in short, 
the villaney of the settlement in general, to write it, would till a volume. 



PROCEEDINGS OF A COURT OF ENQDIEY HELD BY MAJOR GLADWIN'S ORDER TO EX 
AMINE THE FOLLOWING TE8SONS TJPON OATH, DETROIT. 20TH DEC. 1763. 

Capt. James Grant, President. 

Lieut. Abbot Royal Artillery Ensign John Christie Members. 

James Barns soldier in the 60th Regiment being duly sworn declares 
that he was one of the Garrison of Miamis on the 27 May 17i;:i, when that 
Garrison was taken by the Indians, and that Mr. Welch the Merchant 
who had been taken on the Miamis River some days before, told him 

after he had been taken, that being in the river he was haled to con 11 

shore and was secured by the Indians in company with two frenchmen, 
Godfrey and Miney Chene, who were with the same Indians when lie 
came to the Miamis Fort on the 26th in the Evening, & that next day 
after Mr. Holmes was killed, the serjeanl taken and the men. having 
shut the Fort, the Frenchman Godfrey was with Mr. Welch at the Port 
when he called to them to give up the Fort A: thai they would be .ill 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

utrary, the Fori would be se1 on fire & they all burn't, 

upon which they opened the gates and surrendered, thai soon after they 

told him the Deponanl that he was ordered to tell 

,),,.,,, ,rt, By the two Frenchmen Godfrey and Chene, that 

- v had told him, the Deponant, to give him a pair of silver buckles 

he had on his shoes, saying he mighl have thorn as well as the Indians, 

which be, Godfrey, made Welch [nterprel to him in English, for which 

buckles the said Godfrey paid him, a1 Detroit, in December following, 

being then Prisoner there; the Indians who had them Prisoners told 

them they were going to take Ouyatanaw, and went off accordingly 

ipanied by the two said Frenchmen, Godfrey and Chene, and that 

after they heard Ouiyatanaw was taken and that they carried two 

of the soldiers taken at Miamis with them, when they went off for Auiya- 

lanaw. The Deponanl further says thai as soon as they were taken 

away from the Fori Miamis. lie saw French Colours flying upon it. The 

Deponanl further says, upon oath, thai Godfrey and Miney Chene, the 

prisoners al Detroit, are the very Persons he saw with the Indians when 

Miamis was taken. 

William Bolton, soldier in the 60th Regiment, being duly sworn, con- 
linns the Depositions of Burns, excepting from the consternation he was 
in he does not remember who was with Welch when he spoke to them to 
surrender the Fort, as also that he heared thai the Indians had told the 
Frenchman Godfrej and Chene to desire him to tell them in the Fort to 
surrender and thai they would be all saved. 

John McConnie Soldier in the GOth Regimenl being duly swornne 
doposeth thai he was taken by the savages a1 Presqu' isle in June 1763, 
thai he was conducted from thai to the Indian encampment above 

I 'ei roil and from i heme to ( Labidie's house, an Inhabitant on the 

de below the Fori, and thai during the two nights he was there, he 

saw the Landlord Labidie with his own hands dressing the heads and 

painting of three Voung Frenchmen in the Indian manner, each of the 

,w " uights. He believes the firsl nighl was only to please the savages, 

1 being there. That on the day following, being the second day, he 

s there, one Rannoc, n Frenchman but a soldier taken with him and 

risoneral Labadies told him. with seeming sorrow, that (his night they 

would all he killed within the Fort. That Waggeman, another Fellow 

ndbeen senl iutotheForl to be exchanged for an Indian, and 

""" U "" M '"• k'"ed, That he the Deponanl having asked Rannoc how or 

m whai manner they were to he killed telling him at the same time of his 

die painting and dressing the young Frenchmen the night be- 

" RiU1 • ""•" "'plied that the rain only hindered them from at 

''■'"l' lm - ir ""■ n'8*1 before and thai the French were to assist the Indi 
; '" s - b '"' •' Frenchman being wounded, and this N T igh1 thei are 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 659 

to be killed in the Fort, as they can go in when they please, they uaving 
gotten keys to open the Gates & all the French within are to rise and 
assist them as well as all the young men in the country. 

The deponant further declares that the evening of the daj Rannoc told 
him as above, Labadie, the Landlord, had the second time addressed tris 
young men as above described, who had all gone out with several sav- 
ages, he imagined to attack the Fori as told him by Rannoc, thai al sev 
eral other little intervals during the Night Labadie came to the place 
where the Deponant lay, touching him with his hand, he believes to pre- 
vent his escape, the lions,, being -lark and only one old soldier left to 
guard him, That about the middle of the Night, finding the Bouse quiet 
he the Deponant got up, and crept as far as the Door, with an Intention 
to make his Escape but was prevented by Labadie's having heard him 
trying to open the door, challenged him and desired if he would go out 
to take the Indian along with him. The Deponant further says thai he 
believes he might have got oil', had he not in the same day, Rannoc and 
he conversed as above. p U 1 confidence in Labadie who had asked him it' la- 
knew the Indians to have got money in their plunders with some other 
questions to which he replied he did not know, but that they had go1 
some Watches, anil then consulted him about making his escape, thai he 
told him it was impossible if could not swim, pointing to the River, 
which trust he is certain prevented his getting off that: night by the 
vigilance of Labadie & likewise believes was the occasion of his being 
carried away next day to Sagama, where in his way lie met with John 
Edwards a Soldier & Prisoner to whom he related the circumstam 
in this Deposition. The Deponant further declares thai he saw Labadie 
buy three pairs of white stockings from the Indians for tobacco, which 
stockings he believes had been the property id' Ensign Christie, who had 
been also taken at Presqu-isle. And that he further knows the said 
Labadie to have received spades shovels ami other utensils belonging to 
the King from the Savages. The Deponant further says that in the Fall 
of the Year when he was at Sagana, he saw two cannons with eight or 
nine Frenchmen, mostly wounded, who the Indians told him were going 
to the Mississippi for to bring ammunition and men, that a French army 
from thence were coming this way. The Deponant farther says that he 
was lying down in Labadies house one of his Daughters came to him, 
give him a kick with her foot and told him in English to move aside, and 
that the husband of that woman was one of the men dressed and painted 
by Labadie as above related, and had gone ou1 with the savages in the 
night. 

John Edwards soldier being duly sworn declares that the Deponanl 
M< Connie had told him on his way to Sagana the whole in regard to a 
Frenchman in whose house he had been in, having painted and di 



660 THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

three young Frenchmen, n ho he believes assisted the Indians against the 
80 told him with greal concern thai the Fort was to have 
been taken thai Nigbl in the manner related in his deposition. N. B. 
The circumstances in the Deposition of McConnie with regard to the 
being laid open by the Enemy's false keys appears to be true, as 
there were three large keys found within the Fori sometime after hid 
under ground exactly the same make with the real keys of the Fort 
and answering locks equally well. McConnie being asked how he knew 
Labadie to be the Person he had seen Painting the Young Men &Cc 
Answers he has often since he came from the Savages, therefore knows 
him perfectly well; being asked who were the young men he saw him 
paint, answers lie believes two of them were his sons & the other he is 
Bare was his son in-law. 

James Grant, President. 



A COURT OK INQUIRY OROERED To TAKE THE DEPOSITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING PER- 
I \KE.N HV THE SAVAGES IN THE SUMMER, 176S. 
DETROIT, 21ST FEBRUARY, 17M, 

Capt. .lames < rrant, President. 

Ensign John Christie, Ensign Christopr Pauly, GOth Regt. Members. 

Cap1 John McCoy of the 60th Regiment being duly sworn Deposeth 
that he was at Miamis Fori on the -7th day of May 1763 when it was 
taken by the Bavages, that in the morning he saw some Indians coming 
towards the Fort, thai he wenl out to see who they were, and what they 
came about, that as he approached them he saw Mr. Welch, the Indian 
Trader and two Frenchmen, Chene and Godfrey, with the savages, that 
Welch called to him ami told him it was better to surrender the Fort, 
that their officer was killed & that none of them would be hurt, on which 
he turned round to go back to the Fori but found that be was surrounded 
by the Bavages and his reiivat cut off; surrendered himself and was car- 
ried away to the Indian Cabbins about 200 Yards where he found three 
soldiers who had been taken with Mr. Welsh some days before: Being 
asked in regard to the behavior of the Frenchmen Godfrey & Chene, 
answers he saw no hud behavior of i hem during the time he had any 
opportunity of seeing them, which was no1 above an hour, he further 
'I' thai the second day after he was taken from the opposite side 
of the River he sawa Frenchman hoistinga while Flag on the Flagg Staff 
bul does nol know positively who the Frenchman was, that he did not 
1 u " r Ensign Eolmes being out of the Fort until be was told by- 
Welsh i ha. he was killed, i hat he knows nothing of any French that had 
been seen amongsl the Indians, but of a vagabond (had been sometimes 
: " "'" Uiami8 ) wh0 has gone off to the Illinois & had often told the 
Indians thai Quebec and New STork&c were to be taken, that the Miamis 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 661 

Indians bad only seal seventeen or eighteen of their Warriors to Detroit 
who they told him were doI to fighl as they were a1 war againsl the 
< 'herokees. 

Roberl Lawrence soldier in the 60th Regimenl Deposeth thai on the 
L'lili May when he was taken by the Indians with Mr. Welch the Trader 
on the Miamis River he saw the two Frenchmen Godfrey and Chene, with 
the same Indians of whom he asked Welch to enquire what Nation the 
Indians were off, that the old man Godfrey answered they were Ottawas 
and Chippewas, that Welch, at his desire, asked the Frenchman Godfrey 
again, where they were going? Who answered thai the Indians had senl 
them with Letters to the Commandanl of the Illinois to desire that he 
would comedown and take possession of the Garrison of Detroit, thai 
Capt. Campble and Lt. McDougall were taken Prisoners, & that the 
Indians had been a beating of them for two days before they left Detroit, 
that Godfrey spoke to them only, thai Miney Chene kepi constantly 
among the Indians, that in a little after they were taken and tied, he saw 
i wo other Frenchmen whose names he does not know, who had some con 
\ersation with Mr. Welsh, Godfrey and Miney Chene, se1 oil' with these 
other Frenchmen who were servants to Mr. Welch, in two Battoes with 
all the plunder then taken he was told for this Place, that Welsh told 
him on the 25th that tin- old Frenchman < rodfrey had asked what sort of 
man was Mr. Holmes? Was he a good soldier? That on his being told 
he was, the Frenchman then said if he was ho had better shut the gates 
and Fight. That on the 26th in the evening the Indians had tied the 
Prisoners down to the ground, within two miles of the Fort Miamis; 
Went all off except two, who with the two Frenchmen Godfrey and 
Miney Chene, he as well as the other Prisoners supposed were hit to 
Guard them, that after they were sometime gone, Mr. Welch asked the 
French where they were gone, they told him to kill Mr. Holmes, in his 
Room if they could, that in the night two Indians returned lo where they 
were tied & were led in that condition to their Cabbins. That in the 
morning 1'Tth May they had contrived to gel Mr. Holmes out id' the foil, 
waylaid & killed him & brought his scalp to the Cabbins, that then they 
called out Welch and the two Frenchmen Godfrey and Miney Chene who 
he saw no more. 

Thomas Cooper a soldier in the 60th Regimenl being upon Oath, 
Deposelh he was taken at the Depot of St. Cayler on Lake Erie and car- 
ried through this settlement to an Indian farm, belonging to different 
Nations, that he was well treated by the Savages during his Confinement 
& did not see a Frenchman all the time he was pris r. 

N. P.. The two Frenchmen who carried oil Welsh's goods and nol 
known by Lawrence must be known by Godfrey and Miney Chene, who 
were there. 

James Grant, President. 

John Christie, H. Pauli, Ensigns 60th Regt. Members. 



gg.^ THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

Detroit, 16 February, 1764. 
I, ,,,.,„ told the Commandanl in mj presence thai there are severals 
in „ li8 M-ttlemt-nl making Pettyaguar in order to run off in the Spring 
wit b U |l their grains, to the Ellinois & thai thai several of them had called 
him names and abused him for hindring them from striking the English 
Inst rear, and driving them oul of the country, and promised to bring 
their ns w. Jadean returned the 6th March, but says the above inten- 
tion was owing to a vagabond from Montreal who stays in the settle- 
ment and he is to bring him into the Tort as soon as possible with Clare 
monl who is to discover a person it. the Fort who had sung and Danced 
the War Son- and Dance with the Indians the Nighl or Day before the 

C mandanl and the Garrison were to be murdered in Councill, which 

,„. told Claremonl the intended Massacre. Jadeau further told on the 
said 6th March, thai one Predome an Inhabitant abused him for stop- 
pin- some young Frenchmen (forced bj Pondiac) from attacking the Ves- 
sel, be further says that old Bean an Inhabitant on the south side of the 
River (or little Cote) is one of the worst subjects in the Colony. 

Thursday, the 5th April, 1764. 

Jadeau further told me in Col. Gladwins room & presence, that Teala 
,l„. ii,„ ( ,!i Chief had told him that the source of the Indian War, was 
i, ,a owing to any Belts or Emissary sent amongst the Indian Nations 
aboul Detroil by the Six Nations but to the French, who had been con- 
stantly telling them thai their Father had come and taken Quebec & 
Montreal & they were coming here with an army from the Illinois, that 
they would be angry with them if they did not strike the English and 
take the Fort, ere they came, thai litis was the argument used by more 
than two thirds of the settlement to stir up the Indians to mischief. 

I was informed by Mr. LeGrand and Monsieur Dirrisseaux, that before 
Canada was taken Pondiac and some Chiefs from Detroit, suspecting a 
complete conquesl on the side of the English had -one down to Fort Pitt 
and the other Forts on the Communication towards Pensylvania enquir- 
ing thi :i they would have should the English succeed to which 
was answered that first all the Rivers were to run in Rum, that presents 
from this -real Kin- were in he unlimited, that all sorts of goods were to 
be in the utmost plenty and so cheap as a Blanket for two Beavers, 4 

8 taken for a Beaver, with many other fair promises which they 

told in the settlement on their return with much insolence. In conse- 

quence of which they allowed Rogers with a handful of men to take pos- 

ii of the Fori and Colony, receiving him with joy, and using Bel- 

letre the French Commandanl at the same time with much disrespect. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 663 

That in about a year after Pondiac in particular had been heared to com- 
plain and say the English were liars, which opinion became so general, 
thai a long time before they openly declared themselves in arms, a gen- 
eral discontent was amongst all the Nations, and the chief complain! en 
that of the prohibition of rum and that the English took six Raccoons 
for a Beaver, when the French never took but four, with many other com- 
plaints more trifling in their nature, such as Annual Congresses pre 
mised &c, so that on the whole they say all the pr.miis.-s the English 
made were no other than to blindfold and delude them for which they 
had been often heard to say they would kill all the liars and give their 
lands to their Fathers. 

(Signed) .1 urES Grant. 

May 11, 1764. 

Mr. Clairmont told Col. Gladwin in the presence of Capt. Grant & Lt. 
Hay. That the 9th day of May 1763 (being near the Mouth of the River 
Huron getting timber where was also Mr. Massac and many other 
Frenchmen) at three in the morning some Indians came by there with a 
licit inviting all nations of Indians they met to fall upon the English, 
wherever they found them. That they sung the War Song in Mi-. Mas- 
sac's house or Cabbin, which was a little distance from his. & that Mr. 
Massac sung with them & when he struck his stroke in the song he struck 
with a little loaf of Bread. Thai one Dunoir and one Campeau was 
present. That they also said the first Council that was to he held in the 
Fort would be to murder all the English. That ahout eighl o'clock the 
same morning Sir Robert Davers and Lt. Robinson came there in a Boat, 
to whom he told all that had passed and desired them not to go forward 
hut rather stay with him. but they would not believe anything he said 
and went on. That Mr. Massack went oil' in the woods ami would not sec 
Sr. Robert. That about ten he heard the report of some guns toward tin 
Lake & between three and tour in the afternoon the Indians came hack 
and brought their scalps. Massack then said he did not think they would 
have killed them, & he was sorn for his fault. Clermont then told him 
it was necessary somebody should go and acquaint the Commandant of 
what had passed, upon which Massac desired him to come along, hut 
Clermont then asked him he could go who had nobody hut a child to lake 
care of his House, and you have four or live men. Cut since you will not 
go without me I will go by myself, when Massack saw that he went off 
& Clermont imagined came to inform of what had passed, it was then 
about five in the afternoon, the 9th May. 

On Tuesday the 5th June, L764, Mr. Jadeau informed me in the pre 

sence of Col. Gladwin and Lieut. Hay thai i Lesperame, a Frenchman 

on his way from the Illinois he saw a letter with the Oltawas. al the 
Miamis River, he is sure wrote b\ one Baptist Campeau ia deserter from 



I !![•: GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

. ttlemenl of Detroit) and Bigned bj Pondiac, tlie Savage from the 
Illinois Betting forth, Thai there were Five hundred English coming to 
tllt . [|] the Ottawasat Miamis, must have patience that 

ndiac was nol to return until he had defeated the English & then he 
would 'hum- wild an Army from the Illinois to take Detroit, which he 
desired thej mighl publish to all the Nations about. That Poudar and 
Ball was in as greal plenty as water. That the French Commissary La 
Cleff had sold about Forty Thousand weight of Powdar to the Inhabi- 
tants, thai the English, if they came, might not get it. There was 
another letter on the subject senl to an Inhabitant of Detroit, but can't 
tell in whose hand it is. Jadeau further said that Lesperame told him 
that Pondiac on his way to the Illinois this Spring, at Miamis, found 
then- some English Prisoners, one of whom had beat a Chief of that 
Place. That Pondiac told them they must bum him, and on non-Com- 
pliance he threatened to destroy their Nation, on' which threat that 

Prisoner was burned and another shot. 

Signed, James Grant. 



July 9th, 1764. 

This day a small partj of Potawatainies arrived here who informed 
thai an Indian was come from the Illinois to St. Josephs who informed 
them thai he was in Council with Pondiac there. That Mr. Deneyon 
told him he was glad to see him & hoped that his sences were come to 
him. Pondiac then took a large Bell and laid it before him saying, My 
Pai her. the reason of my journey is to get you & all your allies to join 
with me to go againsl the English, upon which Mr. DeNeyon took the 
Bell and told him. Your speech much surprises me as I doubt not but 
you have ree'd my mi ssage, w herein I informed you, the French and Eng- 
lish were bin one. i hen returned the Belt. Pondiac then took the Belt 
again and importuned Mr. DeNeyon several times on the same subject, at 
lasi Mr. DeNeyon grew angry and kicked ii from him, asking liim if he 
had nol alreadj beared what he said to him. Ho then addressed him- 
self to the Illinois Indians and told them, they saw him that day in the 
Fori but perhaps they would see their Brothers the English next, and 
exhorted them to live in amity with them, which he made no doubt of as 

their sentiments were very u 1. Pondiac then asked for Hum & De 

S'eyou gave him a small Barrell, which he look to one of the Illinois Vil- 
lages, and with a Red Pelt exhorted them to sing the War Song with 
him. which some of them did, bin were very sorry for it when they were 
sober. The Indian thai brought u,is says that before he left the Illinois 
he saw Hirer English officers, who were senl on before, the Army being 
bui a little waj behind with a large Body of Indians. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. f,65 

June 10th, 1764. 
This day Teata, a Wiandotl Chief of this Place, arrived herefrom San- 
dusky where he had been to carry Sir William Johnson's Speech, who 
says that after he delivered il and Iefl it to their Deliberation, The Greal 
Chief (Big Jaw) got up and thanked him for the trouble he had been at to 
bring it and immediately the whole wenl out. After he had delivered 

tne s l ch he says he advised them to come to their senses, but in case 

they did not it was their affair. Four days after they came back and 
desired Teata to come and hear what they had to say' in answer. The 
first Belt they pave him was a repetition of Sir Williams speech. Then 
they took another. Savin- Sr William asks the reason why we struck 
against the English, we think he ought to knew better than anybody; 
yes said they, it is Sr William that ought to know, but since the Senecas 
have made Peace with him, and the English, tell him it was them thai 
just embroiled the Earth and were the first cause of what has been done. 
Gave a Belt. They then took another Belt and said. Sr. William and the 
Six Nations want that we should own our folly and find words to excuse 
ourselves that we may be again set right. You'll tell him by this Belt 
which you are charged to deliver to him that lor what is past is past, 
that we have yet done no harm since last summer, we have kept our 
i'oung Men quiet for which reason we think the breach may be easily 
mended; and tell him also we shall keep them quiet this summer when 
we think we shall be reconciled. The two Mohawks who are come witli 
Teata say that they were told by the Ilurons of Sandusky that they 
would not tell Teata the result of a Council they had had with the Shaw 
nees, which was that they were to try to take Fort Pitt by Treachery, 
and if they failed there, were to go against the Inhabitants on the Pron 
tier. One of them further says that before lie left the ] tela wares Towns 
he saw thirty small parties go out who were all intend to go to our fron- 
tiers. They both also say that the Hurous at Sandusky laughed at Teata 
behind his back and (tilled him fool for believing what Sir William said 
and bringing such a message. That tho he said they should be friends, 
it can never be mil ill all the English, except Traders, go from this Place, 
meaning Detroit, and then we believe we shall agree. That their tied 
tells them they must make War, ..x no Peace for ten years, at the end of 
which by the force of treachery during that time all the English will be 
drove away & then (hey will have Pea' e ^x no! till then. That the Dela- 
wares and Shawnees and Ilurons of Sandusky all say the English are 
fools, that they can make friends with us when they please and Toiu.i 
hawk us the next day. That the English always told them they had as 
many men as there were leaves on the trees; but we look upon one Indian 
as good as a thousand of them, anil notwithstanding we are but mice in 
comparison to them, we will kick its much as they can. The two 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

,.ks further Bay thai the Hurons a1 Sandusky told them they were 
sorry thai Sir \\ illiam Johnson was coming here, as they imagined 
by that, he wanted to have his Bones here. They also say that, while they 
were at the Shawaney Village, the French from the Mississippi sent 
them a Presenl of Powder, of which thej saw three Barrels. That the 
Onondagoes whom Sir William sent against the Shawanies came to one 
of these \ Mages, where they were asked what they came for; they said 
we come to scalp you ; Then one Kayoughshoutong said, here, take these, 
giving them two old scalps, that he had newly painted, go home and tell 
Sir William yon have scalped two Shawanese; upon which they returned, 
that the above mentioned Indian was the cause of their not striking 
against the shawanese. I'.ni it was not so wit h the Tuscororsco for they 
lost three men. Mr. St. .Martin, Interpreter, told Col. Gladwin several 
Times, that the Burons of this Place, told him, that if Feace was made 
with the Delawares, Shawanese and Burons of Sandusky that it would 

be neither g 1 nor lasting. 

I Henry Host wick, Residenl at the Fort of Michilimackinac the 2d 
June 1763, declare thai I saw Mr. Sans chagarine of the Fort of Michili- 
mackinac standing at the l> ■ of His House at the Time the Indians 

were murdering the Soldiers, with the Door open, and I saw a soldier 
running inwards the House for Shelter and the Indians after him, but as 

b as he came near the Door, they shut it against him, which gave the 

Indians time to strike him with his Hatchet ; upon receiving the Flow he 
fell forward with so much force againsl the Door that He broke it open. 
1 then wenl into my Carrel and hid myself under some Baggs of Corn 
and sunn after my house was broke open and they began to plunder: I 
-aw the I'any slave, belongin to Arngott, the Smyth, plundering in the 
Chamber with the Rest. After the affair was over I demanded Argott to 
return me what his slave had plundered from Me; He told me what he 
had go1 was safe, hut he would not then return them. I also saw in my 
-arret the son of Monsr Cardin, named Eance, taking the corn out of my 
Chamber into another adjoining his. When he came to the Corn that 
■ d me. I directed him to speak to the Indians to save my life, but he 
called in one of them and made a motion with his mouth towards mo. 
a- myself in such an unhappy situation I went towards an Indian, 
that I knew, and put myself in his hands, at the same time the other 
Indians mad.- a stroke at my head, with his Hatchet, which I fended off 
with nn arm. and the Indian. I spoke to to protect me, saved me from all 
other attempts. During the whole time the Frenchman came not to my 
I was not in many of their Houses after, hut in every one 

where I was, I saw either i; s or Peltry. I saw in tic House of Forti, 

""' Interpreter, three Packs, which belonged to me, the first Day; the 
Daj following 1 saw his Servants bringing into his House Corn, Pork and 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 667 

other things which I supposed came oul of the King's store, as ii was al 
thai time opened. I likewise saw Powder broughl in from the Maga- 
zines. At Monsr Langlads, Senr, I saw one Pack which he would not 
give me, for Four of affronting the Indians, who lefl il with Him. He 
told mo he had traded several of my Packs and would trade all thai came 
in his way, us if was no matter to him where they gol them. Arablin, 
likewise (old mo, ho had boughl very cheap of the Indians some of my 
stockings, and other Things. I told Him 1 would ho -lad to give Him 
what they cost him, if ho would Id mo haw I hom again, because I had 
none to wear. He told Me he go1 thorn for His own Use and nol to sell, 
and that He wou'd wear lino stockings as well us 1, and I heard him say 
that every person got something. 

Sworn before mo on (ho Holy Evangelist this L3th Day of Augt. L763, 
at Montreal. 

Daniel Disney, 

Town Major. 

I Edward Chim declare that on the 16th day of July, 17(i.:, Joseph 
Tessuo a Person employ'd in I ho service of Howard, Chim & Bostwick, 
came to mo and demanded to ho released from his service. We being 
much in want of Assistance cou'd nol comply with His Request, ami lie 
wonl immediately and took away a pack of Peltry ami never came near 
us after. 

Sworn before me on the Holy Evangelist this 13th Day of Augt. IT*;:: at 
Montreal. 

Daniel Disney, 

Town Major. 

I Ezekiel Solomon, Resideni in the Fort of Michilimackinac al the 
time it was surprized by (lie Savages, declare that on the 2d day of June 
a Frenchman, Mens. Cote, entered my House several Times and carried 
from thence several Parcels of Goods, my Property. And also an 
Indian named Sanpear carried the Peltry from my House to the House 
of Aimable Deniviere in whose (iarret I was (hen concealed. I owed 
Monsr Ariek a sum of money, bul at the time Hi' demanded il the pay- 
ment was not become due, and I refused to pay Him till the Time I had 
contracted for; but he told me if I did not pay it he would take it by 
force: I told him, the Command ing Officer would prevenl that, & he 
replyed that the Commanding Officer was nothing, and thai he Himself 
was Commanding Officer. Sworn, &c, 14th Aug., 1763, before me. 

Dane Disney, 

Town Major. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

I Ezekiel Solomon, Resident in the Fori of Michilimackinac at the 
time ii was Burprized by the savages declare that on the second day of 
I nchman, Monsieur Cote, entered my house several times 
.,,,,1 carried from thence several parcels of Goods, my property. * 

of Garrit, Rosel a. Tunis, Fischer, Cummin, Shields 

.,,,,1 \\ m . Bruce, Merch's from LaBay, as taken upon <>ath before a C i 

luirj al ill" Detroil the lili day of .Inly 17(14. 
,.,,ii. COth Reg., President. 

Lieu HcDougal, GO Regt. Lieut. Richard Williams, 60th Regt. 

Membi 

ii Rosel in declares dial aboul the latter end of April, 17i;:i. he 

going from the liny to the Soaks to look for his Partnr Abrahh 
Lancing who had been up there, being told thai he was killed, that on his 
way he mel some Indians coming down with some Packs, which lie knew 
i,. I,,- his, and which they said he might have for paying the carriage; 
Thai both the French and Indians told him, Mr. Lancing and his son 
were killed by two Frenchmen, Tibot & Cardinal, both servts of Mr. 
Lancing, who. they had been told, upon the above Murder made their 
escape io the Illinois: thai on his return to the Bay he found Mr. Garrit 
Mini the Garrison there, and came with them to Michilimackinac, leaving 

his g Is in possession of one .Ionian, a Frenchman and an Inhabitant 

:ii Ik,' Bay; thai when he returned from Michilimackinac with the 
Indians to I. a Bay, he found sum,- of his goods taken away. He thinks 
nid .Mr. Fisher's Io I he value of lid pounds, wh. lie said was stolen 
l>\ the Indians, hut Mr. Roseboom declares he saw his goods wore by 
.Ionian's Family afterwards. That the Indians had often told him that 
the French at I □ particular Goalie, the Interpreter, to Mr. 

('.unit, and Langlad his Son in Law Sourinii had told thou there was an 
open war between the English and French; That the French would send 
the Indians ammunition enough & if they went down amongst the Eng- 
lish tiny would pin poison in their Rum, which he was sure prevented 
t he Indians from coming down much sooner, and declares from the treat- 
ment He and the resl of tin- English Traders received, and the lyes pro- 
edby 1 he French at La Kay, among the Indians, such as the English 
being all killed, an open war with the French, the French Fleets and 
Armies being al Quebec and the Mississippi, he thinks these Inhabitants 
were very had subjects, except one Ducharm, a Montreal Merchant, who 
had come there last Fall, ami who treated him very well, and to his 
knowledge had often endeavored to persuade the Indians, not to believe 
all that was told them llial it was all a lye. \Y Tuenis Fisher, being 
'"' Compy with the aforesaid Deponanl at La Bay, declares that the 
Deposition above consists literally, with his knowledge, therefore con- 
lini >- the Truth thereof; Mr. Cummin Shields declares that he, being at 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 669 

La Hay all last winter, frequently heard (understanding the French lan- 
guage) the Lyes propogated to disturb the Indians, as alreadj declared 

>'. v Ji " s '' 1 "I and Fisher, and further thai he heard Voung Langlad say 

before him and De Chann, thai there were 1000 English killed al the 
Portage of Niagara, 500 Inhabitants on the back Settlements killed, and 
that some ( tovernor, he does aol remember who. had been so hard pushed 
by the Savages thai he had go1 shipping ready to carry him and his 
People away, and abandon his province; I hat the Dauphin of Fiance 
being displeased with the Peace concluded by his Father, had arrived in 
the Mississippi with a large Fleet, and that the Indians would he sup 
plied from that quarter with all necessaries that they would want: All 
this he declared to have read in a news paper which came up to the 
Priest. That a Frenchman named Knasb Bray, who lived with He 
Charm told him, the Deponant, thai he beared Sourini say to DeCharm 
he would give 20 packs if there never should another Englishman come 
there. William Bruce declares that in the Spring L763 hearing Michili- 

mackinac was taken, he came down from The Bay and left his g Is in 

the care of one LeDeuke, a Frenchman; that when he returned he found 
they were all taken away. LeDeuke said by the Indians. That l,he 
Indians who were with him at Michilimackinac asked the two chiefs who 
were left there, how they could permit their young men to do this; that 
they said that LeDeuke had robbed the goods himself ami desired that 
they (the Indians) shou'd take them as the English a1 .Michilimackinac 
were all killed, other Indians wou'd come and take I hem. t hat it was well 
they might have them; That he did not after find a in of his Goods in 
Possession of LeDeuke, hut that he carried on a Trade with the Indians 
all Winter, and to his knowledge he had no Goods before he the Depo- 
nant, was pillaged, which the other opponents affirm, nor any method, 
which they could see, by which they might come at goods, except by pil- 
laging; That in Septembr 1763, there was a letter sent up to LaBay from 
tin' Priest at Michilimackinac by one Mastoc, that there had been till) 
English and the General who came with them killed at Detroit, this 
letter was directed to old Langlad. who he. the Deponant saw read 1 he 
letter to the Indians. That about the latter end of Sept a Chief of the 
Soaks had brought him up called Lewis Constance & at the Benards 
rastle, a"n Indian, told him he was come from LaBay with a letter from 
Gaolie, the Interpreter, to one LeBeace, telling him that there were 
officers from France who had come with a large Fleet commanded by the 
Dauphin, &c, and that the Governor of Quebec had offered these officers 
a Purse of Money for their News, that soon after the Fleet was seen, and 
that Quebec and Montreal would soon be taken, being no more than 500 
men in Each, which news immediately spread among the Indians, who 
were there al the time in great numbers; that the Santows, Ottawas, 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

I - ; . 1 1 . l Puonts gave a Good Deal of Credit to il having a few days 
before i Bell from the [ndians aboul Detroil (o come to War 

against the English, bul thai the Soaks and the Folleasoines could not 
believe it ;Tha1 at the Soaks Castle the Indians told him, the Deponant, 
ill.- French there intended to kill him, on which they called a council and 
brought the French to it, and told them if they killed the Englishman 

Frenchman should die with Him, this had been told him by the 
Indians to whom the French had discovered their intentions; the Names 
of the French on the above Voyage up the Tovis Constance were, Martoc, 
Jordan & Sabeau, Rivier St. Tier. Hon. Fontasil, Harness. Lafortain, the 
three flrst discovering all the marks of had subjects and disaffection to 
i he English in their whole behaviour; Thai he hear'd St. Pier say that 

bad wrote such a letter as the Interpreter wrote to Sabeau, he 
ivo'd expeel to be hanged if ever he went among the English; That St. 
Tier. Rivier, and Fontasie did all they could to prevent the Indians from 
believing the letter above, that in the opening the Mississippi River his 
Chief ask.d the Deponanl if these Lands did belong to the English; he 
said they did, bu1 La I lean immediately contradicted him and said it was 
a I ye, and thai all was false thai the English officers had told him, the 
Chief, in saying i1 was Peace between the English & French. There was 
no such thing, and repeated the contents of Goalie's Letter to the Indians. 
That when they had comedown the Mississippi River about ten days the 
Indians told him thai St. Pier and the other French there had sent a 
Petition to the Commandanl of the Illinois, the < Jontents of wh. he cou'd 
not justlj tell, hui he was informed ii began in acquainting them, they 
ad killed the English a1 Michilimackinac and had not forgot their old 

:s, that one Bonfoi was hearer of said Petition, that he was happy 
in being told on the return to the Petition the Commdt had ordered them 
to have off, .V noi to kill any English, that in killing them they killed the 
French, the} being one people. That the JVnse, I teynards & Soaks wrote 
down this Spring with the other Nations to .Montreal for goods but were 
prevented \<\ one LeVorn who came from the Illinois, and told them if 
thej wein down the English would hang them, and cut off their heads; 

Thai thej had Plenty of G Is at the Illinois wh. he would bring them; 

Thai la- and other Frenchmen wenl off to Illinois for said Goods wh. 
hindered said Indians from bringing down their Peltry. That Goalie 
had told the Indians, thai the Genl. had sd he cou'd hang Capt. Ethring 
ton if he had a mind, bul he would semi him to His Majesty. 

. I ames Grant, 

• 1 GORGE McDoUGAL, 

Rioh'd Williams. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 671 

COPY OF A SPEECH SENT BY THE SHAWANESE, DATED LOWEB SHAWANX TOWN 

•IUNE 24, 1761. 

Friends and Brothers: 

We the Shawanese Qever intend to he at Variance wtli our Brs the 
English, That it is altogether yr own Faults, formerly when a Number of 
our Nations was going to War agl our Enemies (lie Catabas and was 
oblig'd to travel through .vo.n- Country, then you laid Violence on some 
el our Warriors & killed them. Brethren, you have this War, ask,,] for 
a Peace, but don't blame us, hut yourselves for our prosecuting the war 
against you as we have done. 

Brethren now be strong and let your hearts he good as ours the 
Shawanese are and let you and us unanimously to agree in Cultivating a 
lasting Peace will, each other, and in order to confirm that Friendship, 
you must erect no more Forts on our Ground. Brs when ye went to take 
Possession of Fort Detroit, we cautioned you against it ; we told you the 
Indians inhabiting that pari of the Country were not well, but ill (lis 
posed towards you, which you have since found to ho true. Yr tirsf work 
when you arrived there was to build a Fort; this none of us liked, and 
that was one Chief Reason for our entering into a War against you, as 
we had sufficient reason to Hunk you intended taking our country from 
Fs. 

Brothers, now ho strong and Id us think of making a firm and lasting 
Peace with each other; We your Friends, the Shawanese, will help you 
all in our power, the Delawares, Six Nations & Wyandotts will join us in 
so good a work. Brethren, wo must again excuse ourselves for enter- 
ing into this present War and look upon ourselves as blameless for it is 
done. We, and the Delawares, Six Nations & Wyandotts are heartily 
sorry for it, and think it a Pity to prosecute it, any further, as we think 
our Numbers full aide to oppose t hose of the English: At the beginning 
of the War We the Shawanese were well disposed towards you. our 
hearts were good and are so still, and hope our Brs the English are the 
same. We wth the Six Nations vV Wyandotts have no had thoughts 
within Fs & seem well inclined lo renew our ancient Friendship wth our 
Brs the English. Last Summer we went wth the Delawares, Six Nations 
& Wyandots to Fori Pitt, wth a full intent Lo accomodate Matters, but 
as we approached that Garrison We were tired upon wth their Cannon, 
wh obliged us to retire without talking to our Brs, and our Foolish Young 
Men remained there to fighl against I lie Fori. Brs We have collected 
now everything we have to inform you of at this Time. When our Friend 
Mr. Smallman was given to us by another Nation, we thoughl then he 
might he a useful person when we should come on Speaking terms, to 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

s between L's; we are now sending him to perform that 
,.iil, a proper interpreter & a Copy of the Letter & make no doubt 
Brothers «ill again lake- rjs into Favour bul they will not detain 

him. 

BPBECH OF THE SIN NATIONS. JUNE 24. 1761. 

We having this day mel in Council & having weighed talked Matters 
onclude we are not in the fault for entering intoaWaragl You; bul 
thai you are entirely to blame. We told you, our Brs, when you went to 
..ii theLake, thai it was a dangerous undertaking, which you 
since experienced & found to be true. We know very well you blame 
us for wt is past. but if you consider things rightly & do us justice you must 
needs think the Fault lies among yourselves; the Indians inhabiting all 
this large country weir greatly dissatisfied, having repeatedly told Sr 
Wm. Johnson to withdraw his men and demolish the fortifications, 
.1 <>ii our Ground. When we saw all other Nations rising to defend 
themselves and their Country, We thoughl LI expedient and our interest 
i«> join them, of which you had timely notice. When you saw this, that 
yr Brethren the Six Nations had taken up Anus against you. then you 
solicited for a Peace, wh. Sr. Wm. Johnson has been successful in obtain- 
ing, new thai we sir Mm in cl ina 1 ile to a Peace wth us as Yr Brethren, 
the Six Nations gives us greal Pleasure as we find ourselves well dis- 
pose] in enter into our former Love i\ Friendship wth you. You told us 
in be strong, & thai you would be in good understanding with us, wh 
pleases much all the neighboring Nations of Indians this Way, you have 
told us to be strong & the Peace lasting ; & if the Shawanese & Dela wares 
wd accepl of the same they slid have it. They now agree to it and hope 
■ ii on your parts as 'tis on Theirs. & within their Hearts that the 
Brethren, the English, have no mind any to deceive them. Therefore 
Brethren be ye strong also and lei this Peace be a desirable one. Should 
you first violate it there is a Good and a .... bear Witness to it 
& punish you should you prove faithless. We do not, Brs, only talk for 
ourselves, hut also for the Shawanese and Delawares & Wyandots, who 
think as We do. that you should do this in yr Hearts, as they & We will 
observe on our Parts: the Peace that shall now be made shall never be 
broken on either side, then let us both rallies be strong and think of 
nothing bul what is good. 

Brothers, think maturely upon this; do not imagine that what is inti- 
mated comes from the mouth only. Tis with all Truth & Sincerity from 
the Ibai i ; besides, we speak for all Indians in this Country, & are taking 
pains to communicate this G 1 \\ ork to all the Western Nations. 



THE CLAD WIN MANUSCRIPTS. 673 

MONCKTON TO GLADWIN. 

Fori Pitt, July 26, 1760. 
Sir: This will be delivered you by < 'olonel Bouquet — Who has the com 
mand of a detachment, consisting of 400 men of the Lsl Batn R. A. R. 

under Majr Walters, for the relief of Niagra, and of LOO Virginians to 
take Post at Presque Isle. 

By a copy of Genl. Amherst's letter to you, I find, sir, that immediately 
upon the arrival of the Americans at Presque Isle, you are to embark and 
transport them across the Lake. But as I have not as yet been able to 
get up any of the Pensilvaniae Provincials, in time to inarch with this 
detachment; (though I expect some in this day) and the 100 Virginians 
may not be sufficient to keep that Post, till the arrival of the Pensil- 
vanians, (which I am hopeful will be at Presque Isle in two days after 
this detachment as 1 shall send them off immediately) I should be glad, 
if it would be of no detriment to the service, thai 150 or less, of the 
Americans, or of your own detachment, might be left — I think for two 
days almost — till the arrival of the reinforcement. The more so as 1 
suppose they will he able to join you. before you can get your whale 
boats back across the carrying place. This you will consult upon with 
Colonel Bouquet, who is to fix that Post. Besides, sir, the boats that 
will take them after you, may be those you are directed to leave by the 
• iiiils instructions to you, for keeping up the communication between 
Niagra and Presque Isle. 

1 should be glad, sir, of your remarks on the distance of your crossing 
the Lake, of any harbours or creeks, you may have put into, and of the 
shore; likewise of the situation of the ground where the French store 
stood, below the Falls. 
I am, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient 

& Hum. Sent., 

RoHT. MONCKTON. 

Major Gladwin, of the 80th Regt. 

AMHERST TO GLADWIN. 

New York, 21st March, 1762. 
Sir: Your letter of the 24th and 2oth February. Containing Some fur- 
ther Discoveries You had made concerning Hie Indian plot, came to my 
hands last Night. 

You will see by mine of the 17th instant, in Answer to yours ol the 4tb 
ultimo, that I could not give credit to the Indian's intelligence; and I 
85 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCEE 

mU8 l ,,,,,:. -- i am Mill of the same way of thinking, and imagine the 
whole will appear to Lave arisen from Sour- Drunkenness among them- 

I However approve of your using all the means in Your power to Come 
n1 the Truth of this Affair; and of Your Reporting everything you learn 
to Governor Gage, who, I am persuaded, will lie able to Discover if there 
is any foundation for the accusation of the People of Montreal. 
I am, 
Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Jeff. Amhekst. 
Major ( rladwin; or officer Commandg ut Fort Wm. Augustus. 



AMHEBST TO GLADWIN. 

( Prom t tie original warrant, now in possession of Kev. Henry Gladwyn Jebb, of Firbeck Hall, Rother- 
ham, Enclantl.l 

By His Excellency Sir Jeffery Amherst, Knight of the Honorable 
Order of the Bath, Major General, and Commander in Chief of all His 
Majesty's Forces in North America, &c, &c, &c, 

To Major Henry Gladwin, Or Officer Commanding His Majesty's 
Forces at the Detroit, ..V its Dependencies. 

Whereas it has been Reported to me, that a Cruel & Inhuman Murder 
was lately committed on the Body of Mr. John Clapham, on the route 

fr the linn, ii to Presqu' Isle, Supposed to be Done by Two Panis 

Slaves, now in custodj al your Post, and Assisted by some Indians; And 
Whereas I Judge it absolutely Necessary that the Perpetrators, & Abet- 
tors, of thai Horrid Crime, should be Brought to Condign Punishment; 
1 Do, b\ Virtue of the Tower and Authority to me given & granted by 
His Majesty, Authorise & Require Vou to Collect as many of the Officers 
belonging to His Majesty's Troops as you conveniently can, who are 
Herebj Empowered to Hear vV Examine, by Oath, or Otherwise, nil such 
aces as can be found, fororagainsl the Two Panis Slaves, Confined 
for the Murder aforesaid, or any other Person, or Persons, whether 
Indian, or White, thai are anyway Suspected of having been concerned 
in thai Inhuman Ad ; And according to the Opinion given by the Major- 
u > " r ll "' Court, after hearing the Information or Evidence, given for & 
against the Prisoners, Vou will give immediate Directions, for putting 
the Sentence, or Sentences, into Execution, Even if they should Extend 
th, provided You think proper to-approve of the Same; And You 
are farther Required to See thai the said Sentence, or Sentences, are 
Executed in the most Exi raplary & publick manner, that thereby Others 
im.i.n be Deterred from Committing such Cruelties for the Future; And 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. r,7. r » 

for Your so doing, this shall be to Yon, and all Persons Concerned, a Suf 
ficient Warrant & Authority. 

Given under my Hand & Seal al Head Quarters, in New York, this 
15th Day of September, 1762. 

„ „. „ „ , _ , Jeff. Amherst, [seal.] 

By His Excellency s Command, 

Arthur M.ur. 



LETTER FROM SIR JEFFERY AMHERST TO THE SECRETARY AT WAR. 

New York. 17 Sept, i7<;:i. 
Sir: As there have been two Deputy Adjutants general serving here, 
I have taken the liberty to show a mark of my entire satisfaction of 
Major Gladwin's good conduct, and commendable behaviour, in appoint- 
ing him a D. Adjt. General; but to remain with the troops a1 the Detroit 
in the same manner as has been ordered: (his is no more than a name, 
but it should be . . . gracious pleasure to approve it, and honor 
Major Gladwin with the rank of Lieut. Colonel, I am firmly of opinion 
that the promotion of so deserving an officer must at any time be a bene- 
fit to his Majesty's service, and it is the sole view I have in mentioning 
it to you. 
I have the honor to be, with the most perfed regard, 
Sir, 

Ye 

Jeff: Amherst. 
Plight Honorable McEllie. 



GLADWIN TO AMHERST. 
[ Original draft of letter in Gladwin's handwriting. J 

Detroit, November i, 1763. 

Sir: On the 12th Oct. the enemy sued for peace in a very submissive 
manner. At that time I was so circumstanced for want of flour that 1 
must cither pass or hear them. Of the two 1 chose the latter, thinking it 
of the utmost consequence to keep possession of the country. Neverthe 
less, 1 made them no promises. I told them the affair of peace lay wholly 
in your breast, but I did not doubt when you was thoroughly convinced 
of their sincerity everything would be well again; upon which hostility 
cased and they disbursed to their hunting grounds. This gave me an 
opportunity of getting Hour from the country to serve from hand to 
mouth. 



GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 

I'estordaj Monsieur De Quindre, a volunteer, arrived with dispatches 

r,- the Comniandanl of the Illinois, copies of which I enclose to you. 

The tenor of thai of Pondiac is s ething extraordinary. The Indians are 

preparing for peace. I enclose you my answer to their demands. 

I believe as things are circumstanced i1 would be for the good of his 
;.'> servants to accommodate matters in Spring By that time the 
• g will >"■ sufficiently reduced for want of powder, and I do not 
imagine there will be anj danger of their breaking out again, provided 
Home examples are made of their good subjects, the French, who set them 
on. No advantages can be gained by prosecuting the war, owing to the 
difficulty of catching them. Add to this the expense of such a war. 
which if continued the entire ruin of our peltry trade must follow, and 
i In- less of a prodiguous consumption of our merchandise. It will be the 
neaiis of their retiring, which will reinforce other nations on the Missis 
sippi. whom they will push againsl us, and make them our enemies for 
ever. Consequently they will render it extremely difficult, if not impos 
silile, for us to pass that country. And especially the French have pro 
mised to supply them with everything they want. 

The\ have hist between eighty and ninety of their best warriors, but if 
your Excellency si ill intends to punish them further for their barbarities, 

it rnaj I asilj dune, without any expense to the Crown, by permitting 

sale of rum, which will destroy them more effectually than fire and 
sword, bu1 on the contrary, it' you intend to accomodate matters in 
Spring, which I hope you will for i he aboi e reasons, it may be necessary 
to semi up Sir William Johnson. 

I shall write your Excellency fully concerning everything in this 
department li\ Lieutenant Montressor. This comes by Aren, a Mohawk, 
whom I shall direel to wait at Fori Pitt for your answer. 

This moment 1 received a message from Pondiac, telling me that he 
Bhould send to all the nations concerned in the war to bury the hatchet, 

and he hopes j • Excellency will forget what is passed. If not, I believe 

lie \\ ill retire to the Mississippi. 

In a few days I shall send a duplicate of this by Andrew, a faithful 

Rut-on. Be has a -real deal to say with the Delaware*. He will try to 

make mailers easy that way. I shall direct him to assure them of a 

provided they remain quid during the winter, which may perhaps 

iur frontiers of these villains, and in Spring your Excellency can do 

as you please with them. 

N " news of the troops nor of the vessel which sailed from hence the 7th 
of last Month. If i he troops do no1 come very soon they will scarcely 
me to return to Niagara, but I hope Hay will come time enough 
to destroy thai nesl of thieves a1 Sandusky. When things are accommo- 
dated, if your excellency allows an exclusive trade for a year or two to 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 677 

the merchants who have suffered so much by this unhappy affair thei 
will be amply paid for their loss. 
I have the honor to be, with the utmost respect, Sir, 
Your most obedient, humble servant, 



Endorsed : 

To General Amherst, Nove 



II. G. 



COL. GLADWIN TO GEN. GAGE. 
[ From Gladwin's draft of the letter, written at Stubbing, England. 1 

/■'< bruary, 24, 1774. 

Dear Sir: Your most obliging letter of the 9th instani did not com.- to 
hand (ill two days ago. The cover was wry dirty and worn out, there 
fore I conclude that either your servant or mine by mistake had kepi i1 
in his pocket for a week; I wrote to Meyrick yesterday to send me down 
a letter of attorney, and desired him that if he met with any difficulties 
to apply to you,not doubting yourgood offices. I am prone to thank youfor 
your friendly and good advise, and I begin tothiulc lam asbada politician 
as a courtier. To give you an instance of the former latter. When I was 
presented to I he king to 1 hank him for the rank he gave rue, I was asked 
how long I had been in town. I replied, "three weeks." George Won. 
who stood at my elbow, told me I should have said just arrived, Ian as I 
weut to Court only upon that occasion, and thought it probable thai I 
should never go there again, I conceived there was no harm in speaking 
i ho i ruth. 

In regard to my politics you find me jusl as I loft you in America, 
which may suffice to show you that I am not calculated to push myself in 
the world. Besides I am now engaged in another scene, being very happy 
in a good . . . wife and two little children, upon a small paternal 
estate, and am fond of farming and rural amusements. As to company, 
I keep but little, because I cannot afford to live in the stile of my neigh 
bours. Nevertheless I am happy content. From this account of myself, 
1 daresay you will riot be surprised when I tell you thai 1 should prefer 
a small sinecure governmenl at homo to all future expectations in the 
army. 1 should be satisfied with anything that would better my income 
two or three hundr.-d a year. < >n the other hand, 1 do do1 suppose I 
could .net put in a lieutenant .(done] anywhere without purchasing, for 
my friends are out of power, and I think likely to continue so. With 
such interest I should stand but a poor chance in being a candidate for a 
regt. and I have not the way to make friends in another quarter to 
mo in so capital a thing, wherefore I shall endeavor to make myself as 
comfortable as 1 can in my present sii nation and noi sore beyond my 
reach. 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS, 

If anything should draw you into these Northern pails. I should be 
extremely glad to see von here in my little way; if no1 1 do nol despair of 
, :ll '„| waiting upon you in London before you leave the King, il I 
. .hi gel leave. 

.•ml Gage, February 24, 1774. 

WM. AMHEBST TO COL. BOUQUET. 

New York, June 14, 1762. 

Sir: I enclose to you the orders given out here containing the Promo- 
tions thai have been made; I beg leave to congratulate you on seeing 
jour name amongsl them. 

1 have the honor to be, 

sir. 
Yr .Most obedi humble Servt. 

Wm. Amherst. 
Bouquet 

Etassirol tha26th. Answi. 12th July. 
| (ana.lian Archivee. Series A. Vol. 4, page 137.) (Promotions noteDCloseci. A. R.) 

LETTER TO MAJOR GLADWIN. 

Fort Pitt, the 28th Angt, 1763. 

I (ear Sir: 1 had last aighl the very great pleasure to receive your Let- 
the 28th July by your express Andrew who says he was detained 
by sickness a1 Sandusky. Your Letters for the Geueral are forwarded. 
A Mohawk having reported to Sir Win. Johnson that De Troite was 
taken, l could no1 help being uneasy tho Long acquainted with Indian 
Lies. 

It was a great satisfaction to me to know from yourself that you have 
been able to defend thai post, with so few men against that multitude, 
w hal was kimw n below of your firm and prudenl conduct from the begin- 
ning of the Insurrection had obtained the General's approbation, and 
does you i he greatest honor. 

The lnss of all our Detach'd Posts is do more than could be expected 
from their Defenceless state, Bu1 Capt. Campbell's Death affects me 
sensibly. 

I pity the unfortunate who remain Yet in the Tower of the Barbarians, 
rj step we lake to rescue them may and will probably hasten their 
Death. 

Your Express says thai after he left the De Troite, two Wiandots told 
him thai the Detachment of 300 men from Niagara had joyn'd you with 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 679 

provis's. This will give you some ease till more effectual Reinforce- 
ments can be sent. 

You know that you are to have the Command of all the Troops destin'd 
for De Troite and to retake possession of t'he Country now fallen into the 
hands of the Enemy. To that effect the General collects all the Troops 
that can be spar'd at Niagara and Presque Isle. 

The remains of the 42nd and 77th were order'd to Joyn you this waj 
when we had Intelligence that Venang had been surprised, Lieut. Gordon 
and all his unfortunate Garrison murdered. Le Boeuf abandoned and 
Presque Isle surrender'd to my unspeakable astonishment, as 1 knew the 
strength of that Block house which would have boon relieved from 
Niagara. 



I am, Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient and Humble Servant, 
Major Gladwin. (Sic.) 

Endorsed : 

To Major Gladwin, iSth Angnst, 176:?. 
[Canadian Archives, Series A, Vol. 18-2, page 87ii.] 



LETTER FROM DAVID FRANKS. 

Pha., Ocir. 15, 1763. 
Sir: This day the post in & brot accot of the Packetts' arrival, and 
prints to 16th August frm England & inclose you the papers, containing 
the most materiall news, there's reports in Town that Sr. Jeffery has 
Leave to go home, & that a Commissn for Dy Adjutant General! is come 
over for Major Gladwin and that 3000 Troops are coming over. I have 
not time to Ferutt out the Truth of these reports — nor is any Letters 1 
may have yett come to hand, by weh I might have any advic< — No Let- 
ters frm Sr. Jeffery to forwd upp their 1:2 day's Post have advised him 
of the reports of the communication to ye Post being again infested with 
Indians, if any hope ye number may be but few & hourly expeci ye 
Pleasure to hear from you, that you and your Garrison are all well. 



Dear Sir, 

Yr. most obeidt. lib. Servt. 

Dun. Franks. 

Endorsed : 

Mr. D. Franks. 15th October, 176:). Received the 6th Novr. 
[ Canadian Archives, Series A, Vol. 19-2, pat;'' 



THE GLADWIN MANUSCRIPTS. 



MAJOR GLADWIN TO COL. BOUQUET. 

Detroit, Now. 1, 1763. 

Dear Sir: I am to acknowledge the receipl of your two very kind let- 

Uie 28tb Augusl & 29th September. I congratulate you on the 

drubbing you gave the dogs \\ bich does you so much honor — and I doubt 

ir frontier inhabitants hare fell the good effects of it, they never 

will enter into such ;i war again, with that confidence they engaged in 

i his. which I believe they would not have undertaken, but for our good 

subjects the French. 

I Lave had no late accounts from below, the last I received from the 
General is of the 2nd of July, in which I am ordered to establish the out- 
immediately, at the time I received these orders, I knew it was 
impossible to comply with any part of them, the event shows I was right 
in my conjectures. I am heartily wearied of my command and I have 
signified the same to Colonel Amherst, 1 hope I shall be relieved soon, if 
not, I intend to quil the service for 1 would not chuse to be any longer 
exposed to the villany and treachery of the settlement and Indians. 

I hope the General has countermanded his order about the reinforce- 
ment yon were to send me, because they can be of no use here this 
advanci d season- besides I don't see how they can leave Fresque Isle if 
.■> -t thither, supposing that post was rc-istablished which I believe 
i- not the ease, owing to the loss of the sloop but if they should come 
contra ctation, you may he assured Sir, I shall dispatch the 

[{oval Americans immediately, perhaps I may have an opportunity of 
sending them down, in lieu of other troops that are coming up. 

I need not say tiny thing of our affairs here, as you must have heard 
l. of it from other hands, but I send you my dispatch to the General 
open for your perusal, pray let me know what passes in your Depart- 
ment, l shall he happy to hear of your health and welfare & believe me 

lo I.e. 

I "ear Sir, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Henry Gladwin. 
I desire to he remembered to the Gentlemen with you, seal my dis- 
patches to the General and be kind enough to forward them the first 
opportunity. 

ir from Major Gladwin t.. Colonel Bouquet, dated Detroit, 1st November, 1763. Received by 
hawk Iron tl». i9ili at night 
I (anailian Archive*, Series A, Vol. 1S-2. page 520.1 



INDEX 



86 



INI) E X 



Gladwin manuscripts: 

Abbot, Lieutenant 857 

Abraham, Chapman, testifies 643 

Albany "" g48 

Amblln ,^7 

Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, afterwards Lord 
Amherst, promotes Gladwin, 607; ex- 
presses regret that Gladwin's appoint- 
ment was not confirmed, and again 
commissions him major, 607 ; removes 
headquarters from Quebec to New 
York, 618; sends Gladwin to Detroit, 
613; thinks Indian conspiracy of little 
moment, 613; his appreciation of Glad- 
win, 609, 610; letters to Gladwin, 673; his 
warrant for the trial of Pawnee slaves, 
674; letter to Secretary at War, 676; 
letter from Gladwin to, 675; letter to 

Bouquet 678 

Anderson, Ensign Robert 639, 645, 650, 652 

Ariek, M 

Arngott, the smith 

Baby *'."..' 

Bain, Lieutenant James 650,652 

Barnes, James 6'>7 

Barth (or Bart) Piero (or Pero) gunsmith 
at Detroit, 640; says Gladwin caused 
the Indian war by his ill treatment 
642; 646; gives warning of Dalzell's at- 
tack. 647, 648, 650; receives belt as con,- 
uiander, 653; 657. 

Bean 663 

Beauban (see Beaublen). 

Beanbien 632 

Beems, James 665 

Beletre, French commandant at Detroit 1122, 
628, 644. 662 
Beridge, Rev. John, father-in-law of 

Gladwin 609 

Big Jaw, chief 665 

Bloody Run, flghtat 627 

Bolton, William, soldier, testimony of 848, 658 
Bostwick, Henry, testimony of, as to 

Mfchillmackinac massacre 666 

Boquet, Colonel Henry, commandant at 
Fort Pitt, 607, 612; gossips with Cap- 
tain Campbell, 613; letter to Gladwin, 
678. 

Boquet papers 606 

Braddock, General Edward, defeat of .. 615 

Braddoek House, at Alexandria 617 

Bradstreet, Colonel John, his expedition, 
630; his disgraceful peace repudiated 
630. 

Bruce, William 669 

Burton, C. M.. 616, 616, note. 

Cabbarcher 657 



Gladwin manuscript*— Continued: 

Campbell, Captain Donald, goes with 
Rogers to Detroit, 607; his popularity, 
612; a help to Gladwin, 614 ; [earns of 
Pontlac's plot, 617; smokes the oeace 
pipe with Pontiac, 619; invited to a 
council, 621; 885,630, Ml, 643; his cruel 
death, 651; marked to be saved, 657; 678. 

Campeau 656,657,663 

Campeau, Batlst g40 

Campeau, Chartoc '[ 957 

Cardin ^ 

Cardinal .'647,668 

Carlisle, Fred 626 (note.) 

Carver's "Travels through North Amer- 
loa," 616; his story of Pontlac's plot, 618. 

Cass, Lewis, accepts Carver's story 616 

Castacrew, Mr 635 

Chain, Isadore, (See Chene.) 
Chain, Mlny. (See Chene.) 

Chavin 632 

Chene, Edward 667 

Chene, Isadore 6ij,l 

1 Ihene, Miny, plunders a trader, 682; 634; 
messenger for Pontiac, 637; 657, 1158, 660, 681 

Chevalle, Loulson 634, 636 

Chin. (See Chene.) 

Chippewa message to the Illinois French 646 
Christie, Ensign John, 657, 669, 660, 662; 
reports the taking of Presqne Isle, 638. 

Clapham, John, murder of 674 

Claremont 662, 683 

Cole, Mr 635 

Connor, James, soldier 649,650,652 

Cooper, Thomas, testimony of 661 

Cormlck, Caesar, declaration to 632 

Cote, M 667, 668 

Crawford 634 

Croghan, George, deputy to Sir William 

Johnson 612 

Culllerle, French trader, council at the 
house of, 621; Pontlac's flattery of, 622; 
jibes at Pontiac, 623; 1.40. 641, 643, 666. 
657. 
Culllerle, Mademoiselle, dances with Sir 
William Johnson, 613; marries James 
Stirling, 613; the possible Informant of 
Pontlac's plans, 615. 
Currle. (See Culllerle.) 
Cuyler, Lieutenant, brings aid from 

Niagara H24, 687 

1, Dr 640 

Dalzell, ('apt., aide to Gen. Amherst, 
arrives at Detroit, 626; desires to crush 
Pontiac, 626; his threats, 626; romance 
of, 626 (note); his fight at Bloody Knn 
and his death, 627; 646, 647, 660; his 
defeat, 651, 



684 



INDEX. 



Gladwin mano»crtpt» Continued: 

Sir" Robert, explores Lake 
or, 614; Mb family. 614;842, 650, 
083. 
Davlss. (See Davers.) 

inn 6 

nague. Interpreter 8 

DeNeyon '] 

Denlvlere, Amiable >' 

Denter, Lonlaan, Interpreter 8 

DeQalndre, Mr., cadet ordered to Detroit 

with dispatches 865; f 

Detroit, life at, 608; settlement at, 012; 
the fort at, 61-': strength of garrison at, 

Devarette, Jmdcb la ' 

ilere. Battel M2.' 

Dlrresscaux, .\I ' 

Disney, Daniel, town major at Montreal t 

Domelte ' 

Ducbarme 

Dunolr * 

Dub-. - B50j receives belts 

as commander f 

Edwards, .lolin, soldier ( 

Esperame, Madame, despoilBan English 

trader t 

Etherlngton, Capt. George, 824, 828; let- 
ter from, to Gladwin 631,639;« 

Kartl. Interpreter 631,6 

Bire-rafts 6 

Fisher 

Fisher, Manning, testimony of tl 

r. W. Taenia 6 

[Tlemlnjr, Bamson. tl 

tasie t 

Fort Charles, at the Illinois I 

. -. David e 

French at Detroit, 613; Inclined towards 

the Indians, 620; promise to bring Capt. 

back to Hi" Fort, 621; hope 

for English defeat, 622; urge Gladwin 

to escape, 623; message to the Illinois 

646; tarnish corn and horses 

in the Indians. 0-">2; they plan to attack 

the English in the Fort, 650; paint 

■ Ives aa Indiana, 559. 

Fur trade, the I 

Gabriel i 

ral Thomas, beginning of 
Gladwin's acquaintance with, 607; suc- 
ceeds Amherst ascommander-ln chief, 
Gladwin's letter to, 610; 674. 
Garnet, (Set J 

>Ue, Interpreter 689, i 

. repudiates Bradstreet's peace i 

Gentlemen's Magazine, the, contains In- 
formation concerning Gladwin; obit- 
uary notice of Gladwin, 610. 

e 

Gladwin, Charles Dakene, of Belmont 

and Stubbing ti 

Gladwin, Dorothy ( 

Gladwin, Frances, wifeof Francis Glad- 
win A 



Gladwin manuscripts— Continued : 

Gladwin, Henry, one of the few great 
Indian fighters, 605; lack of informa- 
tion concerning, 606; his death and the 
marriages of his daughters mentioned 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, 606; 
ond son of the second Thomas 
Gladwin; born in 1730; mentioned in 
British Army Lists as Lieutenant of 
48th Foot: in Col. Dunbar's regiment 
in 1755; showed bravery at Braddock's 
defeat, where he was wounded, 606; his 
name misspelled in report of battle, 
607; comes under the notice of Gen. 
Gage, 607; appointed major by Am- 
herst, 807; ordered to relieve Niagara, 
607; makes chart of Lake Erie, 607; 
again commissioned major for the 
campaign, 607; praised to the Duke of 
Richmond, 007; at Niagara, 608; his 
commission, 608; arrives at Detroit, 
808, 613; is taken ill, 608; 61.3; sails for 
England; marries Frances, daughter 
Of Rev. John Beridge, 609; 617; declines 
a majority in the Royal Americans; 
returns to Detroit, 609; 614; a poor let- 
ter writer, 609; is promoted, 609; in New 
York ; returns to England; settles down 
as a country gentleman;obituary notice 
of; inscription on his monument, 610; 
error in date of his death ; his decend- 
ents, 611; calls French and Indians 
dogs, 814; 642; learns of Pontiac's plot, 
615; crisis in his life, 617; refuses Pon- 
tiac's offers, 619; suspicious of Indian 
promises, 621; writes Amherst that he 
will hold out, 633; refuses to surrender, 
62S; has articles of peace read to the 
French, 625; tries to dissuade Dalzell, 
626; grants a truce to Pontiac, 629; 
urges retaliation on the French, 629; 
suggests t hat a free sale of rum would 
destroy the Indians, 629; is commended 
by Amherst, 629; promoted to be lieu- 
tenant colonel and colonel, 63C; returns 
to England, 630; is presented to George 
HI., 630; courts of inquiry held by, 631; 
682; 603; letter to Amherst, 675; letter to 
i lage, 877; letter to Bouquet, 680. 
Gladwin, Henry, son of Gen. Gladwin.. 610 

Gladwin, John 606 

Gladwin, Lemuel 606 

Gladwin, Mary 606,610,611 

Iwin, Mrs. Henry, her portrait 
resembles pictures of Martha Wash- 
Ington, 609; her burial-place, 610. 
Gladwin, the schooner, 623, 625; Indian 
attack of, 627-8. 

Gladwin, Thomas 606 

Gladwyn, Capt, Kichard Henry Good- 
win, furnishes genealogy of Gladwin 
family, 606 (rote); inherits from Rev. 
Henry Johnson Goodwin, the Goodwin 
estates, and takes the additional name 
and arms of Gladwin, 611 ; sends photo- 
graphs of Gen. and Mrs. Gladwin 611 



INDEX. 



Gladwin manuscripts -Co7iti'm«:ci: 

Godfrey, Jacque 633, 637, 657, 658, 660, 661 

Gordon, Lieutenant 879 

Gorrell, Lieutenant 639 

Gouin, M., learns from his wife of Indian 
treachery, 615; warns English not to 
trust the Indians, 881. 

Grant, Captain James 1127, B45, 

649, 650, 652, 666, 657, 660, 602. iM;i, tiii,s 

Gross Pointe M6 

Gruereme, Baptist 656 

Haldimand papers, as sources of infor- 
mation 6u6 

Haliburton, Sir Arthur B07 

Hamback ,334 

Hay, Lieutenant, scalps an Indian 625, 636, 

652, 663 
Holmes, Ensign, murder of ....624; 435, 637, 660 
Hopkins, Captain Joseph... 636, 637, 638, 639,657 

Howard, Chim & Bostwick 

Huron, schooner 637 

Illinois nation wiped out 630 

Indians, emissaries from the Six Nations 
appear at Detroit, 613; learn of the 
war between EDglandand France, 614; 
determine to wipe out the English at 
Detroit, 620; Wyandottes promise 
peace, 621 ; chiefs ask Gladwin for a 
council, 631; scalp and mangle the 

bodiesof the English 624 

Isle au Cochon, 619; tradition as to 619 

Jadeau 662,663 

Jadoc, Mr., declaration of 656, 657 

Jamet, Lieutenant, murdered 624, 631 

Jebb, Rev. Henry Gladwyn, interest in 
Gladwin history, 606; sends the Glad- 
win manuscripts to America, 606; de- 
scendant of Dorothy Gladwin, 611; let- 
ters from, 611. 
Jenkins, Lieut. Edward, letters from .6.3.3, 634, 
635 
Johnson, Sir William, goes to Detroit. 
608; has charge of Indian affairs, 612; 
thinks Indian conspiracy universal, 
613; his visit to Detroit a great social 

event 613; 665, 666, 672, 676 

Jordan 668 

Kenbarger 658 

Keysof Fort 660 

Knaggs 647, 648 

Labadie, 632, 643; landlord 658 

La Beace 669 

La Bond 634 

La Butte, Piero, interpreter. 61 ;; testi- 
mony as to proceedings at Cuillierie's 
house, 643; tells Pontiac the story of 
peace is false, 656. 

La Cleff, French commissary 664 

La January, Father, tells of the massa- 
cre at Michilimackinac, 624. 

La Jenness, Madame 643 

Lancing, Abraham 668 

Landsdowne, Marquis of 607 

Langlade, Charles, 625 and (note); 631, 6 8, 

667, 668, 669. 
La Pointe 634 



Gladwin manuscripts -Continued ■ 

LaTlard, !• m 

Lawrence, Robert, soldier, testimony of 661 
Le Corn. St. Luke, 647, 648; sends belts, 
652. 

Le Deuke M9 

Le Grand, Mr jgj 

Lesley, Mr e3 g 

Leslie, Lieut 624^025.631,632 

Lbsperance ^3 

LeVIlle Beau. *"" 957 

^ Vor » .....'."". 670 

Lorraln 635 

Lowdermilk's History of Cumberland.. «i>7 
Ludlow, Col. William obtal] 
Gladwin papers from British War Of- 
fice, 607 (note). 
McConnle, John, soldier, testifies as to 

duplicate keys to the fort 656, 658 

McCoy, Capt. John, relates the capture 

of the Miamis fort 660 

Mac' Donald, 616 (note) 640 

McDougall. Lieut. George. 615; goes with 
Campbell to the Indian council, 621, 
t>25; escapes to the fort, 626; 638; relate- 
story of his and ('apt. Campbell's con- 
finement 841; 

McEllie, St. Hon 

Mackinac. (See Michilimackinac), 
McMillan, James, Senator, reqne-ts 

copies of Gladwin papers 607 

Manlgan, an Ottawa Indian, reveals 

Pontiac's plot to Gladwin 616 

Mair, Arthur 675 

Maisonville 635 

Maloshe, Francois, 640; trades with In- 

dlansagainst Gladwin's orders 642 

.. Mr 652, 663 

Mayack 661 

Mayiirin, M .says the young Frenchmen 
would assist Pontiac with arms as well 

&S spades 648 

Meares, Thomas, soldier, taken prisoner 
at Sandusky, sees Capt. Campbell 
killed 651 

Me|, x he, M 622, 6(7 

Meloshe, Batist 610 

Meloshe, Mathias 651 

Heloshes, assist the Indians 650 

Meloss, Frank .649, 666 

Miamis, The, slaughter at, 623; French 
aid in Its destruction, 633; del 
the attack on, 637, 638; capture of, t>57, 

660: (lies French colors 558 

Michilimackinac, massacre 631 

Michilimackinac, capitulation of Mon- 
treal announced at, 607; massacre at.. 

624, 635, 666 

Mitchell 648 

Uonckton, Colonel Robert, 607; letter to 

Glad win 673 

Montcalm, Marquisde 630 

Montressor, Lieut <>76 

Moran, Edmund, letter from 635 

Nevarre, refuses to assure Pontiac of 

French sympathy 656 



086 



[NDEX. 



tusd; 

the Karl of, marries Dorothy 
D dautihter of John Gladwin, i 

New Orleans ' 

York to be taken ' 

—e Vllltere). 

Niagara 617 ' < 

Oba ' 

oulat I non. disturbances at 634; < 

Packs, John, soldier ' 

Parents Creek ' 

Parkmao, Fi tonsplraoy of 

.. ," 606; misspells Gladwin's 
name, 605; visit to, 605; his manuscripts 
In the Massachusetts Historical Soci- 
ety Library. 808; 609; clings to Carver's 
818; dot). 
Panlly. Ensign H., his statement as to 
Sandusky, 628, 688; adopted by an 
Indian widow, but escapes 623; 661. 

Pauly, Christopher < 

Perry, Ensign. 836 ' ( 

Poniiar. an Ottawa chief, his place In 
history, 606; on Isle a la I'eche, 619; re- 
ports of. too highly colored, 619; his age 
and power, 819; saves the French at 
Detroit, 619; leads the Ottawaa at Little 
Meadows, 619; relates his dream to the 
couuoll, 619; assumes command at De- 
troit, 619; his treachery discovered, 619; 
begins the attack on Detroit, 619; 
encampsabove Detroit, 620; dances the 
war dance, 620; treachery towards 
Capt. Campbell and Lient. McDougall, 
character, 622; success of h's 
plotting, 823 ; usee a French chair as a 
conveyance and Issues credit certlfl 
mmonfl Gladwin to sur- 
render, 625; his appeal to the French, 
14; answer of de Neyeon, 638-9; 
I'ontlac sues for peace, 629; failure of 
his conspiracy, 629; his murder and 
borlal, 630; 655: councils with the 
French, 656; I'ontlac at Fort Pitt. 682: 
calls English liars, 663; commands 
prisoners to be burned, 664. 

I'ontlac diary, the 6 

Potle. Pere. Jesuit 6 

Poolett, Ensign t 

Predome t 

Pre c q,ne Isle, destruction of H 

Quebec to betaken < 

Kannoc 658, t 

Reaume, Hyacinth t 

Keaume. Plero t 

Kentalgae ( 

Rhenbeani u 

Rlvier t 

Kobertson, Captain, murdered 618,1 

Robinson 650,1 

Rogers, Major Robert, ordered to Michi- 

llmaoklnac, 807; at Bloody Hun. 687; 

president court of Inquiry, 652; allowed 

dee possession of Detroit. 688, 

Roseboom. Garrlt < 

Rum, absence of, makes for peace ( 



Gladwin manuscripts— Continued; 

Rutherford, Mr 639,640 

Sagama 659 

St, Andrew- 657 

St. Aubergo, Jacoe, helps to bnlld Are 
rafts, 650; 651; keeps Indians posted, 
652. 

St. Bernard 657 

St. Cayler, on Lake Erie 661 

St, Joseph, 6'.2; capture, 624; disturb- 
ances at, 634, 635; detailed account of 
the capture of, 336. 

St. Martin, Interpreter 666 

St. Obalgueg, the, with the Campaus, the 

prominent people of the town 656 

St. Pier 607 

Sandusky, capture of, 628; detailed 
account of the capture of, 636. 

Sanpear, Indian 667 

Sans Chagarine, refuses English his 

house at Mlchilimackinac 666 

Sault Ste. Marie 612 

Schlcott, Navarre 656,657 

Schlosser, Ensign Joseph 1 636 

Schlosser, Lieutenant, captured and ex- 
changed 621; 633 

Seger, John, 647, 648; taken prisoner at 
Grand River, testifies as to French 

promises 652; 653 

Severings, John, soldier, testimony of, 

650; works on Are rafts 650:652 

Shawanese, letter from, on behalf of the 

English 671 

Shelbarger, soldier 639 

Shields, Cummin 668 

six Nations, speech of 672 

Smallman 671 

Solomon, Ezekiel, testifies as to French 

thefts 667. 668 

Spear, Joseph, letter to 635 

Sterling. James, 613, 615: 616 (note) ; takes 

service under Gladwin 625; 632, 611 

Stubbing, near Chesterfield, Gladwin's 

home 610 

Teala, Huron chief 662 

Teata, Wyandotte chief 665 

Teller, Gerrit, trader 647,648,1149 

Tetsuo, Joseph 667 

Thompson, Bir Ralph 607 

Tibot 668 

Ticonderoga 617 

Tlffoc 657 

Tonnanceur, Madeline de, romance con- 
cerning 626 

Toronto 647,652 

Tracy, a trader, murdered 624 

Trueax, Andreas, testimony of 645,648 

Trueax, Isaac 648 

Turnball 648 

Uphaugh, R. D. de, correspondence 

with 606 

Villiere, Peter Joseph Neyeon de, major 
commandant of the French of the Illi- 
nois 628; 653, 655 

Wahacumaga, Indian chief, refuses to 
fight the English 647,648 



INDEX. 



687 



Gladwin manuscripts— Continued: 

Waggeman 658,659 

Walters, Major, commandant at Niagara 

608; 609, 620, 673 

Wapaumagen 652 

Washington, George, in campaign with 

Gladwin fiO;, fii 7 

Welch, John, taken prisoner l>>- French- 
men, 632; murdered, 633; 657, 660. 
Wilkinson, an English trader, plans 
murder of Pontiac 630 



Gladwin manaserlpte-ContinuaJ. 

Williams, Lieutenant Richard 639,668 

Wingerwort church.Gladwin monument 
in 610 

Winston. Richard, merchant at Bt 
Joseph's, letter from, to Detroit mer- 
chant* xn 

Wynyard.<;.. n . William, marries Jane 
Gladwin 608 



Treatment Date: